How to format your references using the Rare Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
McAuley P. Danger--hard hack area. Nature 2000; 404:21.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Goodall J, Pintea L. Securing a future for chimpanzees. Nature 2010; 466:180–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Rawson PD, Yund PO, Lindsay SM. Comment on “Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.” Science 2007; 316:53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Fouchier R, Kuiken T, Rimmelzwaan G, Osterhaus A. Global task force for influenza. Nature 2005; 435:419–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Botto F. Dictionary of e-Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2003.
An edited book
1.
Schaap L, Daemen H, editors. Renewal in European Local Democracies: Puzzles, Dilemmas and Options. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fortun K, Morgan A. Thinking Across Disaster. In: Shigemura J, Chhem RK, editors. Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident: The Case of Fukushima. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. page 55–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Diseases.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Neil deGrasse Tyson To Host Late-Night Talk Show. IFLScience2015;

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Impoundments of Funds of Energy Research and Development Administration and Department of Commerce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Scharf MT. Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Dominus I by S. ‘You Have to Keep Putting Yourself Out There.’ New York Times2014; :MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Diseases
AbbreviationRare Dis.
ISSN (online)2167-5511
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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