How to format your references using the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jonas, D. M. (2003). Chemistry. Optical analogs of 2D NMR. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5625), 1515–1517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachdev, S., & Zhang, S.-C. (2002). Superconductivity. Tuning order in cuprate superconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5554), 452–454.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cochran, E. S., Vidale, J. E., & Tanaka, S. (2004). Earth tides can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5699), 1164–1166.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pritchard, H. D., Arthern, R. J., Vaughan, D. G., & Edwards, L. A. (2009). Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Nature, 461(7266), 971–975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seabridge, A., & Morgan, S. (2010). Air Travel and Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cocchiarella, L. (Ed.). (2015). The Visual Language of Technique: Volume 2 - Heritage and Expectations in Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jensen, J. J. (2012). Probability of Parametric Roll in Random Seaways. In T. I. Fossen & H. Nijmeijer (Eds.), Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems (pp. 91–105). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 12). China’s First Space Station Could Be Out Of Control And Heading For Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Public Transportation: Use of Contractors is Generally Enhancing Transit Project Oversight, and FTA is Taking Actions to Address Some Stakeholder Concerns (No. GAO-10-909). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adler, A. D. (2012). Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, November 9). Justices Hear Arguments On Late-Term Abortion. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jonas 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jonas 2003; Sachdev and Zhang 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachdev and Zhang 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Pritchard et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.
ISSN (print)1560-4292
ISSN (online)1560-4306
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics

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