How to format your references using the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner, K. (2007). The shipping forecast. Nature, 449(7160), 272–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giles, J., & Knight, J. (2003). Dolly’s death leaves researchers woolly on clone ageing issue. Nature, 421(6925), 776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komatitsch, D., Ritsema, J., & Tromp, J. (2002). The spectral-element method, Beowulf computing, and global seismology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5599), 1737–1742.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fleischer, J. W., Segev, M., Efremidis, N. K., & Christodoulides, D. N. (2003). Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices. Nature, 422(6928), 147–150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durenard, E. A. (2013). Professional Automated Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alfaro, E. J., Pérez, E., & Franco, J. (Eds.). (2005). How does the Galaxy Work?: A Galactic Tertulia with Don Cox and Ron Reynolds (Vol. 315). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lahlou, S. (2009). Supporting Collaboration with Augmented Environments. In P. Dillenbourg, J. Huang, & M. Cherubini (Eds.), Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning (pp. 1–20). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 4). New Frog Species Discovered in New York City. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Highway Safety: NHTSA’s Motorcycle Helmet Activities (No. RCED-98-44R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunther, A. (2014). The Effects of Writing Task Choice on Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Students with ADHD (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Nixon, R. (2017, June 11). Vetting Is Little Changed Since Calls for Travel Ban. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Giles and Knight 2003; Kleiner 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giles and Knight 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fleischer et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.
ISSN (print)1560-4292
ISSN (online)1560-4306
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics

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