How to format your references using the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egan, G. (2000). Only connect. Nature, 403(6770), 599.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voss, R., & Nelemans, G. (2008). Discovery of the progenitor of the type Ia supernova 2007on. Nature, 451(7180), 802–804.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Valkenburgh, B., Wang, X., & Damuth, J. (2004). Cope’s rule, hypercarnivory, and extinction in North American canids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5693), 101–104.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, L.-B., Yu, Z., Teng, X., & Bonini, N. M. (2008). RNA toxicity is a component of ataxin-3 degeneration in Drosophila. Nature, 453(7198), 1107–1111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, O. C. (2011). Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rajendram, R., Preedy, V. R., & Patel, V. B. (Eds.). (2015). Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Maher, N. G., & Murrell, D. F. (2015). A 52-Year-Old Italian Male with Widespread Blistering and Erosions Refractory to Regular Dose Prednisone. In D. F. Murrell (Ed.), Clinical Cases in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases (pp. 27–34). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 9). A Genetic Jigsaw: Single-Celled Organism Breaks Up Its Genome And Rearranges DNA Pieces. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Cost-Benefit Analysis Used in Support of the Space Shuttle Program (No. B-173677). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradnan, D. M. (2015). Cherelle Wilt in Theobroma cacao (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., & Winerip, M. (2015, October 2). In Beatings, Inmates Feared a ‘Captain America.’ New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Egan 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Egan 2000; Voss and Nelemans 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voss and Nelemans 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.
ISSN (print)1560-4292
ISSN (online)1560-4306
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics

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