How to format your references using the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). A demanding world. Nature, 424(6944), 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R., & van der Linden, E. C. (2013). The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic. Scientific reports, 3, 1556.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang, G. Y., Hofmann, H. F., & Pryde, G. J. (2013). Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe. Scientific reports, 3, 2684.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dhir, A., Dhir, S., Borowski, L. S., Jimenez, L., Teitell, M., Rötig, A., et al. (2018). Mitochondrial double-stranded RNA triggers antiviral signalling in humans. Nature, 560(7717), 238–242.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benmammar, B., & Amraoui, A. (2013). Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mikulski, J. (Ed.). (2012). Telematics in the Transport Environment: 12th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2012, Katowice-Ustroń, Poland, October 10–13, 2012. Selected Papers (Vol. 329). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, T., & Suzuki, T. (2015). Role of Glycans in Viral Infection. In T. Suzuki, K. Ohtsubo, & N. Taniguchi (Eds.), Sugar Chains: Decoding the Functions of Glycans (pp. 71–93). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, June 5). Astronomers Discover Planet That Is Hotter Than Most Stars. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Public Transportation: Preliminary Analysis of Changes to and Trends in FTA’s New Starts and Small Starts Programs (No. GAO-07-812T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik, N. (2008). An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, December 28). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Court Rejects Charges Against President. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dhir et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.
ISSN (print)1560-4292
ISSN (online)1560-4306
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics

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