How to format your references using the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, S. (2004). Of towers, walls, and fields: perspectives on language in science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5662), 1333–1335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Low, H. H., & Löwe, J. (2006). A bacterial dynamin-like protein. Nature, 444(7120), 766–769.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke, R. C., Merzenich, M. M., & Schreiner, C. E. (2007). A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature, 450(7168), 425–429.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bowen, G. J., Beerling, D. J., Koch, P. L., Zachos, J. C., & Quattlebaum, T. (2004). A humid climate state during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 432(7016), 495–499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra, D. K. (2006). Practical Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leonardis, A., Bischof, H., & Pinz, A. (Eds.). (2006). Computer Vision – ECCV 2006: 9th European Conference on Computer Vision, Graz, Austria, May 7-13, 2006, Proceedings, Part III (Vol. 3953). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Crain, T., Imbs, D., & Raynal, M. (2012). Towards a Universal Construction for Transaction-Based Multiprocess Programs. In L. Bononi, A. K. Datta, S. Devismes, & A. Misra (Eds.), Distributed Computing and Networking: 13th International Conference, ICDCN 2012, Hong Kong, China, January 3-6, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 61–75). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 20). The Problem With Reinforced Concrete. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Automatic Data Processing Policies, Procedures, and Practices at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California (No. B-162407(6)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinchey, B. A. (2010). Punishing the Penitent: Disproportionate Fines in Recent FCPA Enforcements and Suggested Improvements (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, May 22). A ‘Hamlet’ Poised Between Two Worlds. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Low and Löwe 2006; Montgomery 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Low and Löwe 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bowen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.
ISSN (print)1560-4292
ISSN (online)1560-4306
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics

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