How to format your references using the The Annals of Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Turekian KK. Obituary: Harmon Craig (1926-2003). Nature. 2003;423(6941):701.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Smith DJ, Whitehouse I. Intrinsic coupling of lagging-strand synthesis to chromatin assembly. Nature. 2012;483(7390):434-438.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Whitaker RJ, Grogan DW, Taylor JW. Geographic barriers isolate endemic populations of hyperthermophilic archaea. Science. 2003;301(5635):976-978.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wynn JG, Alemseged Z, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Roman DC. Geological and palaeontological context of a Pliocene juvenile hominin at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature. 2006;443(7109):332-336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Häberlin H. Photovoltaics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Buzdin AA, Lukyanov SA, eds. Nucleic Acids Hybridization Modern Applications. Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang X, Dong H, Tian Y. miRNA Optical Detection. In: Dong H, Tian Y, eds. MicroRNA Detection and Pathological Functions. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Springer; 2015:57-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Before We Build Jurassic World We Need To Study Recent Extinctions. IFLScience. Published June 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/we-build-jurassic-world-we-need-study-recent-extinctions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Corps of Engineers: Effects of Restrictions on Corps’ Hopper Dredges Should Be Comprehensively Analyzed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dulick KC. Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Charkes JS. Scrambling to Enroll More Preschoolers. New York Times. April 26, 2009:NJ3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Pharmacotherapy
AbbreviationAnn. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)1060-0280
ISSN (online)1542-6270
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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