How to format your references using the The Annals of Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buffett BA. Geophysics. The thermal state of Earth’s core. Science. 2003;299(5613):1675-1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski M, Thom C. Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature. 2000;403(6765):37-38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bredesen DE, Rao RV, Mehlen P. Cell death in the nervous system. Nature. 2006;443(7113):796-802.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu X, Yan Z, Wu W, et al. Manipulating size of Li3V2(PO4)3 with reduced graphene oxide: towards high-performance composite cathode for lithium ion batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevenson O. Neglected Children and Their Families. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Lustig BA, Brody BA, McKenny GP, eds. Altering Nature: Volume One: Concepts of ‘Nature’ and ‘The Natural’ in Biotechnology Debates. Vol 97. Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown DW, Duchane DV, Heiken G, Hriscu VT. Phase I Reservoir Development—Redrilling and Flow Testing. In: Duchane DV, Heiken G, Hriscu VT, eds. Mining the Earth’s Heat: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy. Springer; 2012:151-234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Tony Hawk Ride A Real Hoverboard. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Why Is GAO Necessary and What Does It Hope To Accomplish? U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scheepers EM. Psychotherapists’ Use of Outcome Measures in Psychotherapy Practice: Differences Related to Academic Background. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Contractor’s Work Faulted At U.S. Pension Guarantor. New York Times. December 2, 2011:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Pharmacotherapy
AbbreviationAnn. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)1060-0280
ISSN (online)1542-6270
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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