How to format your references using the The Annals of Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roos DS. Genetics. Themes and variations in apicomplexan parasite biology. Science. 2005;309(5731):72-73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lefèvre F, Forget F. Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics. Nature. 2009;460(7256):720-723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood BJ, Halliday AN, Rehkämper M. Volatile accretion history of the Earth. Nature. 2010;467(7319):E6-7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hasselmann M, Gempe T, Schiøtt M, Nunes-Silva CG, Otte M, Beye M. Evidence for the evolutionary nascence of a novel sex determination pathway in honeybees. Nature. 2008;454(7203):519-522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dosil J. Eating Disorders in Athletes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Natarajan S. Boosted Statistical Relational Learners: From Benchmarks to Data-Driven Medicine. (Kersting K, Khot T, Shavlik J, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Chrysafiadi K, Virvou M. Evaluation. In: Virvou M, ed. Advances in Personalized Web-Based Education. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Springer International Publishing; 2015:91-114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Top 10 Space Images Of 2014. IFLScience. Published January 1, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Maritime Industry: Updated Information on Federal Assessments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do YK. Effects of Informal Care on Caregivers’ Labor Market Outcomes and Health in South Korea. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dargis M. Flying Gore Can Ruin One’s Bespoke Suits. New York Times. February 13, 2015:C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Pharmacotherapy
AbbreviationAnn. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)1060-0280
ISSN (online)1542-6270
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles