How to format your references using the The Annals of Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michel-Kerjan E. We must build resilience into our communities. Nature. 2015;524(7566):389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor AF, Smith GR. RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature. 2003;423(6942):889-893.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grima JN, Attard D, Gatt R. Materials science. Unusual thermoelastic properties of methanol monohydrate. Science. 2011;331(6018):687-688.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu R, Wang Q, Ding W, Wang C, Hou L, Ma D. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Böhmer E. Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Vovk V, Papadopoulos H, Gammerman A, eds. Measures of Complexity: Festschrift for Alexey Chervonenkis. 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Dharmarajan TS, Dharmarajan TS, Dharmarajan TS, Dharmarajan TS. The Physiology of Aging. In: Pitchumoni CS, Dharmarajan TS, eds. Geriatric Gastroenterology. Springer; 2012:17-31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Printable Solar Cells One Step Closer To Reaching The Shelves. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Assessing the Federal Program for Strengthening Developing Institutions of Higher Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pezzolesi MG. Novel Mechanisms of PTEN Dysfunction in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, McKINLEY JC Jr. Connecticut Death Penalty Law Is Unconstitutional, Top State Court Says. New York Times. August 14, 2015:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Pharmacotherapy
AbbreviationAnn. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)1060-0280
ISSN (online)1542-6270
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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