How to format your references using the The Annals of Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan C. Points of control in inflammation. Nature. 2002;420(6917):846-852.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann DE, Rothenberg KH. Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science. 2005;310(5746):241-242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teufel R, Friedrich T, Fuchs G. An oxygenase that forms and deoxygenates toxic epoxide. Nature. 2012;483(7389):359-362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee K-B, Park S-J, Mirkin CA, Smith JC, Mrksich M. Protein nanoarrays generated by dip-pen nanolithography. Science. 2002;295(5560):1702-1705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huang HK. PACS and Imaging Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Bourke SJ, Peel ET, eds. Integrated Palliative Care of Respiratory Disease. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Smart WD. Writing Code in the Field: Implications for Robot Software Development. In: Brugali D, ed. Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:93-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Ultrathin “Invisibility Cloak” Makes It Impossible To See Microscopic Objects. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propriety of Additional Reimbursement for Shipment of Household Effects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee S. A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. ‘Bachelor in Paradise’ Suspends Production. New York Times. June 12, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Pharmacotherapy
AbbreviationAnn. Pharmacother.
ISSN (print)1060-0280
ISSN (online)1542-6270
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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