How to format your references using the Apollo Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Apollo Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell B. New release: the complete guide to organ repair. Introduction. Science. 2008;322(5907):1489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich GR, Wood BJ. The Earth’s mantle. Nature. 2001;412(6846):501-507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Su D, Dou S, Wang G. Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes for Li-O2 batteries. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5767.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang C, Xu J, Chui PC, Wong KKY. Parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA) for real-time optical spectrum observation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu H. Shimizu’s Dermatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Zhou L. Knowledge Sharing in Chinese Hospitals: Identifying Sharing Barriers in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Collaboration. (Nunes JMB, ed.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Manton KG, Akushevich I, Kravchenko J. Stochastic Methods of Analysis. In: Akushevich I, Kravchenko J, eds. Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Patterns in the U.S. Population: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Statistics for Biology and Health. Springer; 2009:191-216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Apollo Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lyme Disease: A Ticking Time Bomb. IFLScience. Published May 2, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Software Development Process Improvements Started But Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pradhan SH. User Interface Design, Database Connectivity, and Security in Fortified Cards. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Close Encounters of the Human Kind. New York Times. July 23, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApollo Medicine
ISSN (print)0976-0016

Other styles