How to format your references using the Orthopedic Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedic Clinics of North America (OCL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Goudsmit J. Obituary: Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008). Nature 2009;457(7228):394.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schink B., Friedrich M. Phosphite oxidation by sulphate reduction. Nature 2000;406(6791):37.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Blackstone E., Morrison M., Roth MB. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice. Science 2005;308(5721):518.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Kurz T., Ozlü N., Rudolf F., et al. The conserved protein DCN-1/Dcn1p is required for cullin neddylation in C. elegans and S. cerevisiae. Nature 2005;435(7046):1257–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bonald T., Feuillet M. Network Performance Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Schonmann S. Key Concepts in Theatre/Drama Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cordero A., Torregrosa JR. On the Design of Optimal Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations. In: Amat S, and Busquier S, editors. Advances in Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Equations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedic Clinics of North America.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. In the Wild, Lizard Sex Determination is Climate-Sensitive. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/wild-lizard-sex-determination-climate-sensitive/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Chicago Center Work Force Views of the Air Traffic Control System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Soheili A. A transannular Cope approach toward the core structure of isocyclocitrinol. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hartocollis A. NYU Langone Restarts Emergency Room Damaged by Hurricane Sandy. New York Times 2014:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedic Clinics of North America
AbbreviationOrthop. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0030-5898
ISSN (online)1558-1373
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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