How to format your references using the Orthopedic Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopedic Clinics of North America (OCL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer KM. Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains. Nature 2002;417(6892):933–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu H., Siegel RM. Medicine. Progranulin resolves inflammation. Science 2011;332(6028):427–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan CM., Zhou C., Huang RH. Reconstituting bacterial RNA repair and modification in vitro. Science 2009;326(5950):247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woodhead JL., Zhao F-Q., Craig R., et al. Atomic model of a myosin filament in the relaxed state. Nature 2005;436(7054):1195–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba AJ., Corona JC., Johnson KE. Option Spread Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Dallet D. Dynamic Characterisation of Analogue-to-Digital Converters. vol. 860. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodriguez MA. General-Purpose Computing on a Semantic Network Substrate. In: Badr Y, Chbeir R, Abraham A et al., editors. Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced Semantic Technologies. London: Springer; 2010. p. 57–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopedic Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Have Figured Out Why Your Eyes Move When You Sleep. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues Related to the Structure and Funding of Public Television. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander M. Reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Like Cubs, the Nationals Seek to End a Drought. New York Times 2016:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopedic Clinics of North America
AbbreviationOrthop. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0030-5898
ISSN (online)1558-1373
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles