How to format your references using the The Analysis of Verbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. (2003). Quake triggers research expedition. Nature, 423(6941), 673.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Bono, J. S., & Ashworth, A. (2010). Translating cancer research into targeted therapeutics. Nature, 467(7315), 543–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maier, T., Jenni, S., & Ban, N. (2006). Architecture of mammalian fatty acid synthase at 4.5 A resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1258–1262.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, J. G., Crooks, R. M., Seefeldt, L. C., Bren, K. L., Bullock, R. M., Darensbourg, M. Y., et al. (2018). Beyond fossil fuel-driven nitrogen transformations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6391).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra, A. (2008). Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tomar, V. (2015). Multiscale Characterization of Biological Systems: Spectroscopy and Modeling. (T. Qu, D. K. Dubey, D. Verma, & Y. Zhang, Eds.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rabin, J., & Shehory, O. (2008). Theoretically Founded Optimization of Auctioneer’s Revenues in Expanding Auctions. In J. Collins, P. Faratin, S. Parsons, J. A. Rodriguez-Aguilar, N. M. Sadeh, O. Shehory, & E. Sklar (Eds.), Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce and Trading Agent Design and Analysis: AAMAS 2007 Workshop, AMEC 2007, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 14, 2007, and AAAI 2007 Workshop, TADA 2007, Vancouver, Canada, July 23, 2007, Selected and Revised Papers (pp. 62–75). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, December 12). Japan Launches Spacecraft To Practice Removing Space Junk From Orbit. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Public Transportation: Requirements for Smaller Capital Projects Generally Seen as Less Burdensome (No. GAO-11-778). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauper, A. R. (2009). Effects of leadership training and networking opportunities on professional advancement: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 26). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Says He’s Not Leaning Left but Taking a New “Third Way.” New York Times, p. 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Butler 2003; de Bono and Ashworth 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Bono and Ashworth 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Analysis of Verbal Behavior
AbbreviationAnal. Verbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0889-9401
ISSN (online)2196-8926

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