How to format your references using the The Analysis of Verbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riding, R. (2012). Geochemistry. A hard life for cyanobacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6080), 427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugavaneshwar, R. P., & Nanda, K. K. (2013). Uninterrupted and reusable source for the controlled growth of nanowires. Scientific reports, 3, 1172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flores, I., Cayuela, M. L., & Blasco, M. A. (2005). Effects of telomerase and telomere length on epidermal stem cell behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1253–1256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ricardo, A., Carrigan, M. A., Olcott, A. N., & Benner, S. A. (2004). Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J. E., Downing, D. J., & Bogard, J. S. (2012). Statistical Methods in Radiation Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cherry, K. E. (Ed.). (2009). Lifespan Perspectives on Natural Disasters: Coping with Katrina, Rita, and Other Storms. New York, NY: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Alvarez, R. M., Katz, G., Llamosa, R., & Martinez, H. E. (2009). Assessing Voters’ Attitudes towards Electronic Voting in Latin America: Evidence from Colombia’s 2007 E-Voting Pilot. In P. Y. A. Ryan & B. Schoenmakers (Eds.), E-Voting and Identity: Second International Conference, VOTE-ID 2009, Luxembourg, September 7-8, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 75–91). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 16). This 104-Year-Old Cyclist Is Beating The Science Of Aging. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Highway Safety: Reliability and Validity of DOT Crash Tests (No. PEMD-95-5). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reller, T. L. (2010). Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two small schools (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, November 11). Chatting With Bowie. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riding 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Riding 2012; Sugavaneshwar and Nanda 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sugavaneshwar and Nanda 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ricardo et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Analysis of Verbal Behavior
AbbreviationAnal. Verbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0889-9401
ISSN (online)2196-8926

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