How to format your references using the The Analysis of Verbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sutherland, W. J. (2005). The best solution. Nature, 435(7042), 569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerszten, R. E., & Wang, T. J. (2008). The search for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Nature, 451(7181), 949–952.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Z., Pakoulev, A., & Dlott, D. D. (2002). Watching vibrational energy transfer in liquids with atomic spatial resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2201–2203.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Van Dover, C. L., German, C. R., Speer, K. G., Parson, L. M., & Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2002). Evolution and biogeography of deep-sea vent and seep invertebrates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1253–1257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welsh, A. H. (1996). Aspects of Statistical Inference: Welsh/Aspects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kraas, F., Aggarwal, S., Coy, M., & Mertins, G. (Eds.). (2014). Megacities: Our Global Urban Future. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Datta-Gupta, A., Devegowda, D., Oyerinde, D., & Cheng, H. (2008). The Role of Streamline Models for Dynamic Data Assimilation in Petroleum Engineering and Hydrogeology. In X. Cai & T.-C. J. Yeh (Eds.), Quantitative Information Fusion for Hydrological Sciences (pp. 105–136). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 22). New Treatment “Reverses” Alzheimer’s Disease. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). K-12 Education: Selected States and School Districts Cited Numerous Federal Requirements As Burdensome, While Recognizing Some Benefits (No. GAO-12-672). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuebbels, P. J. (2014). Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, July 23). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Summer Camp For Budding Thieves. New York Times, p. A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sutherland 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gerszten and Wang 2008; Sutherland 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gerszten and Wang 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Van Dover et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Analysis of Verbal Behavior
AbbreviationAnal. Verbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0889-9401
ISSN (online)2196-8926

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