How to format your references using the The Analysis of Verbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broer, D. J. (2014). Applied physics: A new view on displays. Nature, 511(7508), 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chakraborty, A., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2013). FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm. Scientific reports, 3, 1746.
A journal article with 3 authors
den Boer, S. P. A., Baer, B., & Boomsma, J. J. (2010). Seminal fluid mediates ejaculate competition in social insects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5972), 1506–1509.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, J., Dziumbla, S., Lin, J., Bibli, S.-I., Zukunft, S., de Mos, J., et al. (2017). Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents diabetic retinopathy. Nature, 552(7684), 248–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy, T. (2012). Electromagnetism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Roco, M. C. (2011). Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020: Retrospective and Outlook. (M. C. Hersam & C. A. Mirkin, Eds.) (Vol. 1). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Albertos, P., Sanz, L., Mateos, I., Sánchez-Vicente, I., Lechón, T., Fernández-Espinosa, G., et al. (2016). Gasotransmission of Nitric Oxide (NO) at Early Plant Developmental Stages. In L. Lamattina & C. García-Mata (Eds.), Gasotransmitters in Plants: The Rise of a New Paradigm in Cell Signaling (pp. 95–116). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 12). 3 States Just Voted To Make Marijuana Completely Legal — Here’s What It Does To Your Body And Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Studies of U.S. Universities’ Research Equipment Needs Inconclusive (No. RCED-84-105). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poland, M. C. (2010). New cluster-based routing and multi-channel MAC protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (2001, February 4). The A List. New York Times, p. 713.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Broer 2014; Chakraborty and Bandyopadhyay 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chakraborty and Bandyopadhyay 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Analysis of Verbal Behavior
AbbreviationAnal. Verbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0889-9401
ISSN (online)2196-8926

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