How to format your references using the The Analysis of Verbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil, V. (2000). Magic beans. Nature, 407(6804), 567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sepúlveda, J., & Murray, C. (2014). The state of global health in 2014. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1275–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, N., Hittinger, C. T., & Carroll, S. B. (2003). Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631), 361–363.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, C.-H., Huang, H., Ward, C. M., Su, J. T., Schaeffer, L. V., Guo, M., & Hay, B. A. (2007). A synthetic maternal-effect selfish genetic element drives population replacement in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5824), 597–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, M. D. (2016). Great Myths of Intimate Relationships. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rappuoli, R., & Del Giudice, G. (Eds.). (2011). Influenza Vaccines for the Future (First.). Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Manseau, J., & Keown, M. (2005). Development of an Assessment Methodology for Lower Leg Injuries Resulting from Anti-Vehicular Blast Landmines. In M. D. Gilchrist (Ed.), IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications (pp. 33–40). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 20). Early Stages Of Schizophrenia Linked To Brain Inflammation. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). FAA Oversight of Procedures and Technologies to Prevent and Mitigate the Effects of Dense, Continuous Smoke in the Cockpit (No. GAO-13-551R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatton, J. D. (2012). The Changing Dynamics of Health Care: Physician Perceptions of Technology in Medical Practices (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Cooper, M. (2012, July 17). Gloomy Forecast for States, Even if Economy Rebounds. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smil 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sepúlveda and Murray 2014; Smil 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sepúlveda and Murray 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Analysis of Verbal Behavior
AbbreviationAnal. Verbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0889-9401
ISSN (online)2196-8926

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