How to format your references using the The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alan Stern S. The evolution of comets in the Oort cloud and Kuiper belt. Nature. 2003;424(6949):639-642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stahley MR, Strobel SA. Structural evidence for a two-metal-ion mechanism of group I intron splicing. Science. 2005;309(5740):1587-1590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teng F-Z, Dauphas N, Helz RT. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake. Science. 2008;320(5883):1620-1622.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Prevedel R, Walther P, Tiefenbacher F, Böhi P, Kaltenbaek R, Jennewein T, Zeilinger A. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward. Nature. 2007;445(7123):65-69.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins RD. Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Ho T-Y. Full-Chip Nanometer Routing Techniques. (Chang Y-W, Chen S-J, eds.). Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hassenzahl M. The Thing and I: Understanding the Relationship Between User and Product. In: Blythe MA, Overbeeke K, Monk AF, Wright PC, eds. Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Springer Netherlands; 2005:31-42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Robotic Assassin Will Hunt And Kill Starfish That Are Destroying The Great Barrier Reef. IFLScience. Published September 3, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: America’s Schools Report Differing Conditions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reich LM. Adapted physical education teachers’ attitudes towards their students with hidden and visible disabilities. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. Drink Lots of Fluids, and Save Time for a Frisking. New York Times. September 18, 2006:SPG2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
AbbreviationAm. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
ISSN (print)0002-9637
ISSN (online)1476-1645
Infectious Diseases

Other styles