How to format your references using the The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N. Metabolomics: Biochemistry’s new look. Nature. 2008;455(7213):697-700.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thyer R, Ellefson J. Synthetic biology: New letters for life’s alphabet. Nature. 2014;509(7500):291-292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iacopino V, Allen SA, Keller AS. Ethics. Bad science used to support torture and human experimentation. Science. 2011;331(6013):34-35.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Sowa Y, Rowe AD, Leake MC, Yakushi T, Homma M, Ishijima A, Berry RM. Direct observation of steps in rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Nature. 2005;437(7060):916-919.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fraser J, Simkins BJ. Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
du Plessis SS, Agarwal A, Sabanegh ES Jr, eds. Male Infertility: A Complete Guide to Lifestyle and Environmental Factors. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Luna BQ, Blahut J, Kappes M, Akbas SO, Malet JP, Remaître A, van Asch T, Jaboyedoff M. Methods for Debris Flow Hazard and Risk Assessment. In: Van Asch T, Corominas J, Greiving S, Malet JP, Sterlacchini S, eds. Mountain Risks: From Prediction to Management and Governance. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research. Springer Netherlands; 2014:133-177.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is Stephen Hawking Right? Could AI Lead To The End Of Humankind? IFLScience. Published December 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Standards and Technology: Impact of Fee Increases on Measurement Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley KM. Diversity and Evolution of 185/333, an Immune -Related Gene Family from the Purple Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus Purpuratus. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruiz RR, Schmidt MS. Sessions Steers Clear of Trump’s ‘Joke’ on the Use of Force by the Police. New York Times. August 2, 2017:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
AbbreviationAm. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
ISSN (print)0002-9637
ISSN (online)1476-1645
Infectious Diseases

Other styles