How to format your references using the Skeletal Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skeletal Muscle. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cohen J. AIDS MEETING: South African Leader Declines to Join the Chorus on HIV and AIDS. Science. 2000;289:222a.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Best RB, Hummer G. Biochemistry. Unfolding the secrets of calmodulin. Science. 2009;323:593–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Caricchi L, Simpson G, Schaltegger U. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth’s crust. Nature. 2014;511:457–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li B, Song Z, Li Z, Wang H, Gui R, Song R. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4710.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Steland A. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Fröding B. Neuroenhancement: how mental training and meditation can promote epistemic virtue. 1st ed. 2015. Osika W, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Srivastava S, Goyal P. Hyperaccumulation: A Phytoremedial Approach. In: Goyal P, editor. Novel Biomaterials: Decontamination of Toxic Metals from Wastewater. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skeletal Muscle.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Daily Diary Reveals How Cannabis Use Affects People With Bipolar [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: DOD Continues to Improve Institutional Approach, but Further Steps Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 May. Report No.: GAO-06-658.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lieberman DS. “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Schwirtz M. New York City Jails Take Another Blow: Respected Official Is Stepping Down. New York Times. 2017 May 26;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkeletal Muscle
AbbreviationSkelet. Muscle
ISSN (online)2044-5040
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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