How to format your references using the Skeletal Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skeletal Muscle. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Klarreich E. Top researchers plan to snub fertility conference. Nature. 2001;413:241.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Padian K, Dial KP. Origin of flight: Could “four-winged” dinosaurs fly? Nature. 2005;438:E3; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. James A, Pitchford JW, Plank MJ. James et al. reply. Nature. 2013;500:E2-3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. D’Ostilio K, Cremers J, Delvaux V, Sadzot B, Garraux G. Impaired automatic and unconscious motor processes in Parkinson’s disease. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Juhnke GA, Granello DH, Granello PF. Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Keupp MM, editor. The Northern Sea Route: A Comprehensive Analysis. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Di Risio M, Ballantyne PJ, Read S. Living Optimally with HIV: Youth Experience in a Metropolitan Canadian City. In: Liamputtong P, editor. Children and Young People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skeletal Muscle.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Athletics Doping Report Should Spark Radical Rethink On Drugs In Sport [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Proposed Regulation Prescribing New “Fixed-Price Options” " Provisions for Use in Automatic Data Processing Systems Procurement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Aug. Report No.: B-186313,B-188658.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Robertson B. Forging a New World Nationalism: Ancient Mexico in United States art and visual culture, 1933–1945 [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Prospero, Confined Yet Commanding. New York Times. 2017 Jan 19;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkeletal Muscle
AbbreviationSkelet. Muscle
ISSN (online)2044-5040
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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