How to format your references using the Skeletal Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skeletal Muscle. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Southern light. Nature. 2007;447:882.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Burke A, Robinson LF. The Southern Ocean’s role in carbon exchange during the last deglaciation. Science. 2012;335:557–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jiang G, Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N. Stable isotopic evidence for methane seeps in Neoproterozoic postglacial cap carbonates. Nature. 2003;426:822–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stuber N, Forster P, Rädel G, Shine K. The importance of the diurnal and annual cycle of air traffic for contrail radiative forcing. Nature. 2006;441:864–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ccps. Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Saleh H. Pro JSF and HTML5: Building Rich Internet Components. Second Edition. Christensen AL, Wadia Z, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gamble A, Carneiro C, Barazi RA. Introduction to the Ruby Language. In: Carneiro C, Barazi RA, editors. Beginning Rails 4. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013. p. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skeletal Muscle.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Mothers Predominately Cradling Infants On Their Left May Have A Deep Evolutionary Origin [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Collection Efforts Not Keeping Pace With Growing Number of Defaulted Student Loans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Aug. Report No.: CD-77-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Day KC. CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. 2015 Mar 20;C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkeletal Muscle
AbbreviationSkelet. Muscle
ISSN (online)2044-5040
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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