How to format your references using the Clinical eHealth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical eHealth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wan Z. China’s scientific progress hinges on access to data. Nature. 2015;520(7549):587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tewksbury JJ, Nabhan GP. Seed dispersal. Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies. Nature. 2001;412(6845):403-404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv U, Laurat P, Klein J. Fluidity of water confined to subnanometre films. Nature. 2001;413(6851):51-54.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goremychkin EA, Park H, Osborn R, et al. Coherent band excitations in CePd3: A comparison of neutron scattering and ab initio theory. Science. 2018;359(6372):186-191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow J, Kohn E, Mondragon-Gilmore J, Eggenschwiler J. CliffsNotes® Praxis I®: PPST®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Nickerson B, ed. Sample Preparation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Challenges and Strategies for Sample Preparation and Extraction. Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Sworder DD, Boyd JE. Classification and Target Tempo. In: Boyd JE, ed. Locating, Classifying and Countering Agile Land Vehicles: With Applications to Command Architectures. Springer International Publishing; 2016:113-140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical eHealth.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Have Researchers Discovered A New Boson To Explain Dark Matter? IFLScience. Published September 7, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Issues Associated With a Possible Amtrak Liquidation. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson J. Differences in physical activity behavior between insulin using diabetics versus non-insulin using diabetics. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ayittey GBN. After Revolutions, Beware of Crocodiles. New York Times. April 6, 2012:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical eHealth
ISSN (print)2588-9141

Other styles