How to format your references using the Clinical eHealth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical eHealth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holland P. Developmental biology. The ups and downs of a sea anemone. Science. 2004;304(5675):1255-1256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugarman J, Siegel AW. Research ethics. When embryonic stem cell lines fail to meet consent standards. Science. 2008;322(5900):379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ballester GE, Sing DK, Herbert F. The signature of hot hydrogen in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Nature. 2007;445(7127):511-514.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fujiki R, Chikanishi T, Hashiba W, et al. GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis. Nature. 2009;459(7245):455-459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geyer T. Model Predictive Control of High Power Convertersand Industrial Drives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Błaszczak Z, Markov B, Marinova K, eds. LASER 2006: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties” (LASER 2006) Held in Poznán, Poland, 29 May–1 June 2006. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Armellin G, Betti D, Casati F, Chiasera A, Martinez G, Stevovic J. Privacy Preserving Event Driven Integration for Interoperating Social and Health Systems. In: Jonker W, Petković M, eds. Secure Data Management: 7th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2010, Singapore, September 17, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:54-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical eHealth.

Blog post
Andrew E. Could Plastic “Lego” Roads Pave The Way To A Greener Future? IFLScience. Published July 16, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Aviation: Modernization Strategy Needs to Be Reassessed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al Hashimi H. Local Measurement and Characterization via Fluorescing Materials for Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. For Homeless Families, A Tiring Trek to School. New York Times. March 2, 2003:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical eHealth
ISSN (print)2588-9141

Other styles