How to format your references using the Clinical eHealth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical eHealth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hand E. Cash crisis could ground NASA rocket. Nature. 2009;461(7261):153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Géléoc GSG, Holt JR. Sound strategies for hearing restoration. Science. 2014;344(6184):1241062.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang G, Liu C, Fan S. Directly measuring of thermal pulse transfer in one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2549.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Austin MJ, Muskett P, Kahn K, Feys BJ, Jones JDG, Parker JE. Regulatory role of SGT1 in early R gene-mediated plant defenses. Science. 2002;295(5562):2077-2080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moir I, Seabridge AG. Military Avionics Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Forte M, Campana S, eds. Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Archaeology in the Age of Sensing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Batra A, Portlock CS. Principles of Chemotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma. In: Specht L, Yahalom J, eds. Radiotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:45-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical eHealth.

Blog post
Luntz S. Global Warming Increases New York Flooding Danger 20-Fold. IFLScience. Published September 30, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner M. An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Collins Will Move From Dugout to Front Office as Mets Turn to Other Questions. New York Times. October 2, 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical eHealth
ISSN (print)2588-9141

Other styles