How to format your references using the Clinical eHealth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical eHealth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dupas P. Getting essential health products to their end users: subsidize, but how much? Science. 2014;345(6202):1279-1281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buckley SA, Evershed RP. Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies. Nature. 2001;413(6858):837-841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai W, Vasudev AP, Brongersma ML. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics. Science. 2011;333(6050):1720-1723.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gunaletchumy SP, Seevasant I, Tan MH, et al. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and gastro-duodenal diseases in Malaysia. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7431.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower MC. Wind Resource Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Heintze HJ, Zwitter A, eds. International Law and Humanitarian Assistance: A Crosscut Through Legal Issues Pertaining to Humanitarianism. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhangoo RS, Crockard HA. Ventral Approaches to the Clivus, C1, and C2. In: Watkins RG III, Watkins RG IV, eds. Surgical Approaches to the Spine. Springer; 2015:17-26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical eHealth.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is The Largest Known Object In The Universe? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of Federal Support of Shore Facilities and Vessels for Research Activities at Oceanographic Institutions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams AA. A Study of the Attitudes and Opinions of Southwest Missouri Educators Regarding the Value and Outcome of the Performance Based Teacher Evaluation Process. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Magazine Is New in Moscow, but Looks Familiar to New York. New York Times. August 21, 2004:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical eHealth
ISSN (print)2588-9141

Other styles