How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi BP: Neuroscience: hardwired for taste. Nature 2012, 486:S7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson TJ, Lilley DMJ: Biochemistry. The evolution of ribozyme chemistry. Science 2009, 323:1436–1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang P, Jacobson MK, Mitchison TJ: Poly(ADP-ribose) is required for spindle assembly and structure. Nature 2004, 432:645–649.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Barderas R, Villar-Vázquez R, Fernández-Aceñero MJ, Babel I, Peláez-García A, Torres S, Casal JI: Sporadic colon cancer murine models demonstrate the value of autoantibody detection for preclinical cancer diagnosis. Sci Rep 2013, 3:2938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi SV: Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2001, .
An edited book
Fischinger M, editor: Performance-Based Seismic Engineering: Vision for an Earthquake Resilient Society. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2014, .
A chapter in an edited book
Hawkes D, Kennell J, Booth P, Abson E: The Impact of Motivation Factors on Spending at a Public Sector Festivals Programme. In: Matias Á, Nijkamp P, Romão J, editors. Impact Assessment in Tourism Economics, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 67–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E: LHC Finds Particles That Defy The Standard Model Of Physics. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2015, .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Nanomanufacturing and U.S. Competitiveness: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014 May. Report No.: GAO-14-618T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez F: Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA], California State University, Long Beach, 2010, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: In Scandal at Puerto Rican Utility, a Key Player Insists He Took No Bribes. New York Times 2016, :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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