How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henderson GM: Ocean science. Coral clues to rapid sea-level change. Science 2005, 308:361–362.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li M, Izpisua Belmonte JC: Ageing: Genetic rejuvenation of old muscle. Nature 2014, 506:304–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim M, Metzler R, Bar-Yam Y: Global pattern formation and ethnic/cultural violence. Science 2007, 317:1540–1544.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Woo JS, Han JT, Jung S, Jang JI, Kim HY, Jeong HJ, Jeong SY, Baeg K-J, Lee G-W: Electrically robust metal nanowire network formation by in-situ interconnection with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep 2014, 4:4804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe S: Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012, .
An edited book
González-Prida Díaz V: After–sales Service of Engineering Industrial Assets: A Reference Framework for Warranty Management. Crespo Márquez A, editor. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014, .
A chapter in an edited book
Missbach M, Stelzel J, Gardiner C, Anderson G, Tempes M: Security Aspects for SAP on Cloud. In: Stelzel J, Gardiner C, Anderson G, Tempes M, editors. SAP on the Cloud, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013, pp. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E: Some Spectacular SEM Images Of The Microscopic World [Internet]. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30], . Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Early Childhood Centers: Services to Prepare Children for School Often Limited. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-95-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samel C: Imagination and negotiation: Motivations for Cambodian women to marry Cambodian American men [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA], California State University, Long Beach, 2014, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: As Hitting Improves, Wheeler Lifts Mets From the Mound. New York Times 2017, :B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles