How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narbonne GM: Modular construction of early Ediacaran complex life forms. Science 2004, 305:1141–1144.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard MS, Doupe AJ: What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature 2002, 417:351–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spéder P, Adám G, Noselli S: Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila. Nature 2006, 440:803–807.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Renner C, Aeppli G, Kim B-G, Soh Y-A, Cheong S-W: Atomic-scale images of charge ordering in a mixed-valence manganite. Nature 2002, 416:518–521.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krause TR: Leading with Safety. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005, .
An edited book
Nittel S, Labrinidis A, Stefanidis A, editors: GeoSensor Networks: Second International Conference, GSN 2006, Boston, MA, USA, October 1-3, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008, .
A chapter in an edited book
Weiss RA: Oncogenic Viruses and Cancer Transmission. In: Robertson ES, editor. Cancer Associated Viruses, Boston, MA, Springer US, 2012, pp. 101–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Why Scientists’ Failure To Understand GM Opposition Is Stifling Debate And Halting Progress [Internet]. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30], . Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986 May. Report No.: IMTEC-86-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanfill DL: Teacher perception of the alignment of enhancing Missouri’s Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO], Lindenwood University, 2010, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Myers SL: Challenger in Race for Moscow Mayor Says He Can Force a Runoff. New York Times 2013, :A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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