How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor CE: Neuroscience. A new viewpoint on faces. Science 2010, 330:764–765.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn S, Lee SJ: Nanoparticle role on the repeatability of stimuli-responsive nanocomposites. Sci Rep 2014, 4:6624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li B, Yu Z-H, Fei S-M: Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits. Sci Rep 2013, 3:2594.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Diefenbach A, Jensen ER, Jamieson AM, Raulet DH: Rae1 and H60 ligands of the NKG2D receptor stimulate tumour immunity. Nature 2001, 413:165–171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Han CC, Akcasu AZ: Scattering and Dynamics of Polymers. Singapore, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2011, .
An edited book
Schettini R, Tominaga S, Trémeau A, editors: Computational Color Imaging: Third International Workshop, CCIW 2011, Milan, Italy, April 20-21, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, .
A chapter in an edited book
Katagi T: Behavior of Pesticides in Water-Sediment Systems. In: Ware GW, Albert LA, Voogt P de, Gerba CP, Hutzinger O, Knaak JB, Mayer FL, Morgan DP, Park DL, Tjeerdema RS, Whitacre DM, Yang RSH, Gunther FA, editors. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: Continuation of Residue Reviews, New York, NY, Springer, 2006, pp. 133–251.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E: Men and Women Could Use Different Cells to Process Pain [Internet]. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30], . Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Computer Operations and Data Processing Activities at the Social Security Administration. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977 Jun. Report No.: HRD-77-97.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sever RS: A Quantitative Descriptive Study Using the Theoretical Domains Framework to Investigate and Compare the Psychotropic Medication Prescribing Behavior of Primary Care Prescribers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ], Northcentral University, 2017, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico. New York Times 2012, :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles