How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farrar JM: Chemical reactions. Steric and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science 2002, 295:2222–2223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant PR, Grant BR: Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin’s finches. Science 2002, 296:707–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
French S, Lekic V, Romanowicz B: Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere. Science 2013, 342:227–230.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Rosskopf D, Bornhorst A, Rimmbach C, Schwahn C, Kayser A, Krüger A, Tessmann G, Geissler I, Kroemer HK, Völzke H: Comment on “A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity.” Science 2007, 315:187; author reply 187.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horváth T: Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006, .
An edited book
Dodds S, Ankeny RA, editors: Big Picture Bioethics: Developing Democratic Policy in Contested Domains. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, .
A chapter in an edited book
Mattox A, Li J, Di C, Adamson DC: Medulloblastoma: Role of OTX2 Transcription Factors. In: Hayat MA, editor. Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 8: Astrocytoma, Medulloblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Chordoma, Craniopharyngioma, Oligodendroglioma, and Ependymoma, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Fang J: Baby Bats Learn Sounds by Mimicking their Moms [Internet]. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30], . Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Program Meets Contract Goal, but Refinements Are Needed. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994 Aug. Report No.: RCED-94-168.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simsic G: Revisiting Addiction Using Depth Psychology: The Myth of Exodus as a Blueprint for Recovery [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA], Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J: For the First Time, She Hears the Birds Chirp And the Wind Whistle. New York Times 2017, :A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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