How to format your references using the The American Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Killworth PD: Comment on “Oceanic Rossby waves acting as a ‘hay rake’ for ecosystem floating by-products.” Science 2004, 304:390; author reply 390.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker M, Walker LC: Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 2013, 501:45–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dloniak SM, French JA, Holekamp KE: Rank-related maternal effects of androgens on behaviour in wild spotted hyaenas. Nature 2006, 440:1190–1193.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhu Y, Wang F, Liu L, Xiao S, Yang Y, Wu Y: Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Sci Rep 2013, 3:3187.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heiberger RM: Computation for the Analysis of Designed Experiments. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015, .
An edited book
Saha V, Kearns P, editors: New Agents for the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. New York, NY, Springer, 2011, .
A chapter in an edited book
Keune JD, Hall BL: Understanding Quality and Cost from a Health Policy Perspective. In: Sethi MK, Frist WH, editors. An Introduction to Health Policy: A Primer for Physicians and Medical Students, New York, NY, Springer, 2013, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Hale T: Ivory Poachers Poison 14 Elephants In Zimbabwe [Internet]. IFLScience., IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30], . Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of Accountable Officers’ Accounts, Minneapolis Postal Data Center. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970 Oct. Report No.: 092849.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard Puppa EL: Duration of case management: Correlation with Medicaid pediatric patient outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ], University of Phoenix, 2010, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Goodnough A: President Is Preparing to Declare a National Emergency Over the Opioid Epidemic. New York Times 2017, :A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0002-9440
ISSN (online)1525-2191
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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