How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (APJTB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneider S. The worst-case scenario. Nature 2009;458(7242):1104–1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob Z, Shalaev VM. Physics. Plasmonics goes quantum. Science 2011;334(6055):463–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe Y, Farquhar J, Ohmoto H. Anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes during thermochemical sulfate reduction. Science 2009;324(5925):370–373.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Maule CF, Purucker ME, Olsen N, Mosegaard K. Heat flux anomalies in Antarctica revealed by satellite magnetic data. Science 2005;309(5733):464–467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff NP, Davletshin A. A Guide to Safe Material and Chemical Handling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Pinn AB (ed.). Humanism and Technology: Opportunities and Challenges. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hitchmough RA, Patterson GB, Chapple DG. Putting a Name to Diversity: Taxonomy of the New Zealand Lizard Fauna. In: Chapple DG, editor. New Zealand Lizards. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016: 87–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Folding Graphene Like Origami May Allow Us To Wear Sensors In Our Skin. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management Improvements Essential for Key Automated Systems at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello DM. Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. As to the Direction of the Roberts Court: The Jury Is Still Out. New York Times. 2007;:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed.
ISSN (print)2221-1691
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)

Other styles