How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (APJTB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falke JJ. Enzymology. A moving story. Science 2002;295(5559):1480–1481.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hansen DM, Galetti M. Ecology. The forgotten megafauna. Science 2009;324(5923):42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
DeLoache JS, Uttal DH, Rosengren KS. Scale errors offer evidence for a perception-action dissociation early in life. Science 2004;304(5673):1027–1029.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schneider ME, Belyantseva IA, Azevedo RB, Kachar B. Rapid renewal of auditory hair bundles. Nature 2002;418(6900):837–838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rimai DS. Patent Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Buck T, Franke A, Monaghan MJ (eds.). Three-dimensional Echocardiography. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen X, Sun J, Sun M. A Hybrid Model of Connectors in Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Merz S, Pang J, editors. Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 16th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2014, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, November 3-5, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014: 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Two New Studies Explain The Formation Of A Bullseye Crater On The Moon. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gopalappa C. Three essays on analytical models to improve early detection of cancer. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Doing Business In Small Quarters. New York Times. 2000;:14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed.
ISSN (print)2221-1691
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)

Other styles