How to format your references using the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (APJTB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willoughby HE. Atmosphere. Forecasting hurricane intensity and impacts. Science 2007;315(5816):1232–1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lister AM, Sher AV. The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science 2001;294(5544):1094–1097.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang JC, Lockner DA, Reches Z. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments. Science 2012;338(6103):101–105.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pham CK, Diogo H, Menezes G, Porteiro F, Braga-Henriques A, Vandeperre F, et al. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Sci Rep 2014;4:4837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tripathi N, Singh RS, Hills CD. Reclamation of Mine-Impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Lewis D, Eysenbach G, Kukafka R, Stavri PZ, Jimison HB (eds.). Consumer Health Informatics: Informing Consumers and Improving Health Care. Springer: New York, NY, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramos NMM, Delgado JMPQ, Almeida RMSF, Simões ML, Manuel S. Application of Data Mining Techniques. In: Delgado JMPQ, Almeida RMSF, Simões ML, Manuel S, editors. Application of Data Mining Techniques in the Analysis of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016: 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

Blog post
Davis J. One Of Africa’s Last Remaining ‘Giant Tusker’ Elephants Has Been Killed By Poachers. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Automation: Progress Made, More Expected in Revenue Reconciliation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Polk RL. Examining students with disabilities in a linked learning pathway. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Harsh Realities. New York Times. 2011;:ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
AbbreviationAsian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed.
ISSN (print)2221-1691
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)

Other styles