How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sasai, Y. (2013). Cytosystems dynamics in self-organization of tissue architecture. Nature 493, 318–326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Villier, L., and Korn, D. (2004). Morphological disparity of ammonoids and the mark of Permian mass extinctions. Science 306, 264–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray, B. J., Knopf, D. A., and Bertram, A. K. (2005). The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth’s atmosphere. Nature 434, 202–205.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Higham, T., Compton, T., Stringer, C., Jacobi, R., Shapiro, B., Trinkaus, E., et al. (2011). The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe. Nature 479, 521–524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bech, S., and Zacharov, N. (2006). Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Caine, D., and Purcell, L. eds. (2016). Injury in Pediatric and Adolescent Sports: Epidemiology, Treatment and Prevention. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Aranda-Corral, G. A., and Borrego-Díaz, J. (2010). “Mereotopological Analysis of Formal Concepts in Security Ontologies,” in Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems 2010: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS’10) Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing., eds. Á. Herrero, E. Corchado, C. Redondo, and Á. Alonso (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Ferocious Extinct Fox Fossils Found In Tibet. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Research and Development Funding: Reported Gap Between Data From Federal Agencies and Their R&D Performers Results From Noncomparable Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Almasaari, A. H. (2017). Arab American women’s identity crises in Mohja Kahf’s “The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf” and Laila Halaby’s “West of the Jordan.”

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (2014). Man of War. New York Times, BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sasai, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Villier and Korn, 2004; Sasai, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Villier and Korn, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Higham et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiological Chemistry
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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