How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayes, J. M. (2011). Geochemistry. Earth’s redox history. Science 334, 1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boetius, A., and Joye, S. (2009). Ecology. Thriving in salt. Science 324, 1523–1525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maini, P. K., Baker, R. E., and Chuong, C.-M. (2006). Developmental biology. The Turing model comes of molecular age. Science 314, 1397–1398.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, Y., Zhang, J., Su, G., and Li, J. (2014). From sphere to polyhedron: a hypothesis on the formation of high-index surfaces in nanocrystals. Sci. Rep. 4, 6520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimer, T., and Werner, M. (2004). Die Zukunft der Mikrosystemtechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hernández-Hernández, D., and Minjárez-Sosa, J. A. eds. (2012). Optimization, Control, and Applications of Stochastic Systems: In Honor of Onésimo Hernández-Lerma. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, T., and Chellappa, R. (2012). “Age Invariant Face Verification with Relative Craniofacial Growth Model,” in Computer Vision – ECCV 2012: 12th European Conference on Computer Vision, Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part VI Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. Fitzgibbon, S. Lazebnik, P. Perona, Y. Sato, and C. Schmid (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 58–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Recently-Discovered Wasp Species Named For Harry Potter Creature. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Air Traffic Control: Computer Capacity Shortfalls May Impair Flight Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contartesi, R. A. (2010). School climate: A correlational analysis of superintendent leadership communication and employee performance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007). The Bolshoi Tries Partnering With a Friend From America. New York Times, AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hayes, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Boetius and Joye, 2009; Hayes, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boetius and Joye, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiological Chemistry
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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