How to format your references using the The American Journal of Human Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Human Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jackson, I., I. (2000). Taking the Earth’s temperature. Nature 406, 470–471.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gaudet, J., and Mango, S.E. (2002). Regulation of organogenesis by the Caenorhabditis elegans FoxA protein PHA-4. Science 295, 821–825.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tuffen, H., Smith, R., and Sammonds, P.R. (2008). Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma. Nature 453, 511–514.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Zhu, M., Lei, B., Ren, F., Chen, P., Shen, Y., Guan, B., Du, Y., Li, T., and Liu, M. (2014). Branched Au nanostructures enriched with a uniform facet: facile synthesis and catalytic performances. Sci. Rep. 4, 5259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wells, J.T. (2017). Corporate Fraud Handbook (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
1. (2005). Cyberspace Security and Defense: Research Issues: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Cyberspace Security and Defense: Research Issues Gdansk, Poland 6–9 September 2004 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands).
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grinevetsky, S.R., Zonn, I.S., Zhiltsov, S.S., Kosarev, A.N., and Kostianoy, A.G. (2015). C. In The Black Sea Encyclopedia, I.S. Zonn, S.S. Zhiltsov, A.N. Kosarev, and A.G. Kostianoy, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 169–215.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. (2013). Three Baby Exoplanets Have Been Imaged Directly (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1987). Federal Aviation Administration’s Acquisition of the Advanced Automation System (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ware, R.J. (2012). Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Their Interests in Reading As Defined By Engagement and Social Interaction When Using Sustained Silent Reading, SSR, and Peer Interests Reading Strategies, PIRS. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Powell, M. (2017). Zen Phil Exits The Garden. The Knicks Will Endure. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,2.
This sentence cites four references 2,2,2,2.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Human Genetics
AbbreviationAm. J. Hum. Genet.
ISSN (print)0002-9297
ISSN (online)1537-6605

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