How to format your references using the The American Journal of Human Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Human Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Benford, G. (2004). Reality is wilder. Nature 432, 955.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Youle, R.J., and van der Bliek, A.M. (2012). Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and stress. Science 337, 1062–1065.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kiger, A.A., White-Cooper, H., and Fuller, M.T. (2000). Somatic support cells restrict germline stem cell self-renewal and promote differentiation. Nature 407, 750–754.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Lan, P., Tan, M., Zhang, Y., Niu, S., Chen, J., Shi, S., Qiu, S., Wang, X., Peng, X., Cai, G., et al. (2018). Structural insight into precursor tRNA processing by yeast ribonuclease P. Science 362,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ferguson, N., Schneier, B., and Kohno, T. (2015). Cryptography Engineering (Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.).
An edited book
1. (2014). Dynamic Ecologies: A Relational Perspective on Languages Education in the Asia-Pacific Region (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands).
A chapter in an edited book
1. Raad, B., and De Georgia, M. (2013). Perspectives and Approach to Stroke Prevention and Therapy. In Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Stroke, M.L. Corrigan, A.A. Escuro, and D.F. Kirby, eds. (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), pp. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Blog post
1. Fang, J. (2014). New Mexico’s New Armored, Club-Tailed Dino Had Canadian Cousins (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1998). Civil Agencies Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Slade, S.W. (2010). The complexity of leading in the 21st century: A case study of a successful charter school in an urban school district. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barnes, B. (2017). Golden Globes Put Stars and Politics on the Stage. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Human Genetics
AbbreviationAm. J. Hum. Genet.
ISSN (print)0002-9297
ISSN (online)1537-6605

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