How to format your references using the Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Parks JE 2nd. Chemistry. Less costly catalysts for controlling engine emissions. Science. 2010;327:1584–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liu Q, Wang X. Opinion dynamics with similarity-based random neighbors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2968.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Raxworthy CJ, Forstner MRJ, Nussbaum RA. Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature. 2002;415:784–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tanovic A, Samel SA, Essen L-O, Marahiel MA. Crystal structure of the termination module of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Science. 2008;321:659–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bamfield P. Research and Development in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Ribes R. Primary Care English. García-Gimeno I, Jones R, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Arslan-Ayaydin Ö, Thewissen J. The Impact of Environmental Strengths and Concerns on the Accounting Performance of Firms in the Energy Sector. In: Dorsman A, Westerman W, Simpson JL, editors. Energy Technology and Valuation Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 83–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Nanostructure Of Dragonfly Wings Kills Bacteria By Tearing Them To Pieces [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/nanostructure-of-dragonfly-wings-kills-bacteria-by-tearing-them-to-pieces/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Physical Infrastructure: Challenges and Investment Options for the Nation’s Infrastructure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 May. Report No.: GAO-08-763T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ionedes NJ. An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schmidt MS, Apuzzo M, Haberman M. Mueller Is Said to Seek White House Interviews in Russia Inquiry. New York Times. 2017 Aug 12;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine
AbbreviationSports Med.
ISSN (print)0112-1642
ISSN (online)1179-2035
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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