How to format your references using the Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marx V. High-throughput anatomy: Charting the brain’s networks. Nature. 2012;490:293–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fei Y, Bertka C. Planetary science. The interior of Mars. Science. 2005;308:1120–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dudovich N, Oron D, Silberberg Y. Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. Nature. 2002;418:512–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fan H, Yang K, Boye DM, Sigmon T, Malloy KJ, Xu H, et al. Self-assembly of ordered, robust, three-dimensional gold nanocrystal/silica arrays. Science. 2004;304:567–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schmidt P, Körber R, Coppers M. Sieben und Siebmaschinen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
1. Dignum FPM, Eijk RM van, Flores R, editors. Agent Communication II: International Workshops on Agent Communication, AC 2005 and AC 2006, Utrecht, Netherlands, July 25, 2005, and Hakodate, Japan, May 9, 2006, Selected and Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cerrato L, Akira H, Campbell N, Luz S. A Speech-to-Speech, Machine Translation Mediated Map Task: An Exploratory Study. In: Quesada JF, Martín Mateos F-J, Lopez-Soto T, editors. Future and Emergent Trends in Language Technology: First International Workshop, FETLT 2015, Seville, Spain, November 19-20, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Childhood Health Improves Following Closure of Chinese Coal-Burning Power Plant. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Assessment of Overhead Persistent Infrared Technology Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jan. Report No.: GAO-14-287R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tegtmeier T. Science-related attitudes of urban middle school students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. JUSTICES TO RULE ON A CHALLENGE TO U.S. TRIBUNALS. New York Times. 2005 Nov 8;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine
AbbreviationSports Med.
ISSN (print)0112-1642
ISSN (online)1179-2035
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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