How to format your references using the Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. O’Callaghan T. Introduction: The prevention agenda. Nature. 2011;471:S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tsodyks M, Gilbert C. Neural networks and perceptual learning. Nature. 2004;431:775–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ding WW, Murray F, Stuart TE. Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science. 2006;313:665–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rempel AW, Waddington ED, Wettlaufer JS, Worster MG. Possible displacement of the climate signal in ancient ice by premelting and anomalous diffusion. Nature. 2001;411:568–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Werner M. Global Displacements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Stranieri A. Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases. Zeleznikow J, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Eberhardt U, Rulhoff S, Stjepandic J. Integration of Time Management in the Digital Factory. In: Pokojski J, Fukuda S, Salwiński J, editors. New World Situation: New Directions in Concurrent Engineering: Proceedings of the 17th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering. London: Springer; 2010. p. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Why Can’t We Remember Our Early Childhood? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Requirements Determination Process Can Be Improved at NASA’s Langley Research Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Mar. Report No.: PLRD-82-56.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Funderburk J. Modern Variation in Predation Intensity: Constraints on Assessing Predator-Prey Relationships in Paleoecologic Reconstructions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Mandela’s Prison Letters Are to Be Published. New York Times. 2017 Jun 27;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine
AbbreviationSports Med.
ISSN (print)0112-1642
ISSN (online)1179-2035
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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