How to format your references using the Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine (Sports Med). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fung I. CLIMATE CHANGE: Variable Carbon Sinks. Science. 2000;290:1313.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Heath RJ, Rock CO. A triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature. 2000;406:145–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tuff J, Wade J, Wood BJ. Volcanism on Mars controlled by early oxidation of the upper mantle. Nature. 2013;498:342–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rouzi AA, Almansouri N, Sahly N, Alsenani N, Abed H, Darhouse K, et al. Efficacy of intra-cervical misoprostol in the management of early pregnancy failure. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shimizu H. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Haines AJ. Enhanced Surface Imaging of Crustal Deformation: Obtaining Tectonic Force Fields Using GPS Data. 1st ed. 2015. Dimitrova LL, Wallace LM, Williams CA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ferrara SD. Causal Value and Causal Link. In: Ferrara SD, Boscolo-Berto R, Viel G, editors. Malpractice and Medical Liability: European State of the Art and Guidelines. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Other Solar Systems Are Looking More Like Ours [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Privatization: Issues Related to the Sale or Lease of U.S. Commercial Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Nov. Report No.: RCED-97-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Honnold JL. Toward a Working Theory of Neurorhetorics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: Protesters Sentenced. New York Times. 2002 Apr 23;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine
AbbreviationSports Med.
ISSN (print)0112-1642
ISSN (online)1179-2035
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles