How to format your references using the European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ahnert SE. Generalised power graph compression reveals dominant relationship patterns in complex networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4385.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rahman MA, Halfar J. First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6162.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mulligan CJ, Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM. Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals.” Science. 2006;314:1390.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lim DS, Kim ST, Xu B, Maser RS, Lin J, Petrini JH, et al. ATM phosphorylates p95/nbs1 in an S-phase checkpoint pathway. Nature. 2000;404:613–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fullman SH. Increasing Alpha with Options. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Clemmensen T, Campos P, Orngreen R, Pejtersen AM, Wong W, editors. Human Work Interaction Design: Designing for Human Work: The first IFIP TC 13.6 WG Conference: Designing for Human Work, February 13–15, 2006, Madeira, Portugal. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sportiello L, Zanero S. Context-Based File Block Classification. In: Peterson G, Shenoi S, editors. Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 119 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Hale T. 100,000 Flying Foxes Are Causing Chaos In A Small Australian Town [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/100000-flying-foxes-are-causing-chaos-small-australian-town/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Acquisition Has Increased Costs, Reduced Capabilities, and Delayed Schedules. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Apr. Report No.: GAO-09-596T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mani V. Empirical study of link between operations and financial performance for retailers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. Neighbors Protest Flea Market’s Move to Belmont Park. New York Times. 2007 Jan 7;14NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationEur. J. Trauma Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-9933
ISSN (online)1863-9941
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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