How to format your references using the European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery (Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Richter LM. Studying adolescence. Science. 2006;312:1902–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Velicogna I, Wahr J. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004. Nature. 2006;443:329–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Azzam NA, Hallenbeck JM, Kachar B. Membrane changes during hibernation. Nature. 2000;407:317–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Torres-Padilla M-E, Parfitt D-E, Kouzarides T, Zernicka-Goetz M. Histone arginine methylation regulates pluripotency in the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2007;445:214–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Goossens F. How to Implement Market Models Using VBA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Surman CBH, editor. ADHD in Adults: A Practical Guide to Evaluation and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Patel M, Nagl S. Novel Strategies for Integrating Models into Systems-Level Simulations. In: Nagl S, editor. The Role of Model Integration in Complex Systems Modelling: An Example from Cancer Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Remains Of Ancient Star Cluster Found In Milky Way’s Heart [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/remains-of-ancient-star-cluster-found-in-milky-ways-heart/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of Selected Contracts Awarded by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Sep. Report No.: PSAD-79-103.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cox ET. Prenatal cocaine: Effects on neonatal vocalizations, cue-induced maternal response, and brain development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Cities Urge Public Pension Funds to Divest From Gun Makers. New York Times. 2013 Jan 25;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationEur. J. Trauma Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (print)1863-9933
ISSN (online)1863-9941
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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