How to format your references using the The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Palumbi SR. Humans as the world’s greatest evolutionary force. Science. 2001;293(5536):1786–1790.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Davis BR, Candotti F. Genetics. Mosaicism--switch or spectrum? Science. 2010;330(6000):46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Carbone F, Kwon O-H, Zewail AH. Dynamics of chemical bonding mapped by energy-resolved 4D electron microscopy. Science. 2009;325(5937):181–184.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Schlag J, Cai RH, Dorfman A, et al. Extrapolating movement without retinal motion. Nature. 2000;403(6765):38–39.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diver DA. Plasma Formulary for Physics, Astronomy, and Technology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1. Klein EA, Jones JS eds. Management of Prostate Cancer. 3rd ed. 2013. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nie J, Qian Y, Cui N. Enhanced Mirror Adaptive Random Testing Based on I/O Relation Analysis. In: Wu Y, ed. Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 1. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Watch Live As SpaceX Relaunches One Of Its Rockets For The First Time Today. IFLScience. 2017. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Status, Plans, and Future Data Management Challenges. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Graeter CJ. Longitudinal Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subjects in the American Clinical Trial of Enzyme Potentiated Desensitization. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. As Payouts Rise, New Tactics By the U.S. Pension Insurer. New York Times. 2010:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)1543-5946
ISSN (online)1876-7761

Other styles