How to format your references using the The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mackay TFC. Genetics. A-maize-ing diversity. Science. 2009;325(5941):688–689.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Merritt DJ, Dixon KW. Conservation. Restoration seed banks--a matter of scale. Science. 2011;332(6028):424–425.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Little AF, van Oppen MJH, Willis BL. Flexibility in algal endosymbioses shapes growth in reef corals. Science. 2004;304(5676):1492–1494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Chen J, Perebeinos V, Freitag M, et al. Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes. Science. 2005;310(5751):1171–1174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heimann RB. Classic and Advanced Ceramics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Preve NP ed. Grid Computing: Towards a Global Interconnected Infrastructure. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lewis J. BPA and Dental Materials. In: Eliades T, Eliades G, eds. Plastics in Dentistry and Estrogenicity: A Guide to Safe Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014:117–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Nearly All Lion Deaths Are Caused By Humans In Some Parts Of Africa. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Allen MW. Popular Culture and War in the Vietnam Era. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York City’s Sconces. New York Times. 2016:RE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)1543-5946
ISSN (online)1876-7761

Other styles