How to format your references using the SMARTT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SMARTT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Auerbach DJ. Surface science. Hitting the surface--softly. Science. 2001;294:2488–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rickman C, Bickmore WA. Transcription. Flashing a light on the spatial organization of transcription. Science. 2013;341:621–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Glaser A, Barak B, Goldston RJ. A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification. Nature. 2014;510:497–502.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shen S-Z, Crowley JL, Wang Y, Bowring SA, Erwin DH, Sadler PM, et al. Calibrating the end-Permian mass extinction. Science. 2011;334:1367–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barone S, Franco EL. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Fernandes JM, Machado RJ, Wnuk K, editors. Software Business: 6th International Conference, ICSOB 2015, Braga, Portugal, June 10-12, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Belvisi MG, Hele DJ. Cough Sensors. III. Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptors on Vagal Sensory Nerves. In: Chung KF, Widdicombe J, editors. Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Cough. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 63–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SMARTT.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. New Fungal Find Suggests Dinosaurs Did Drugs Too. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dinosaurs-did-drugs-fungal-find-suggests/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: The Local Multipoint Distribution Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hong AN. A Diastereomeric Strategy in the Construction of Homochiral Metal-Organic Architectures. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Haughney C, Carr D. Boston Globe Is Another Metro Paper Gone Local. New York Times. 2013;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSMARTT
ISSN (print)0000-0000
Scope

Other styles