How to format your references using the Thin Solid Films citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin Solid Films. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.R. Matthews, Controlling and coordinating development in vector-transmitted parasites, Science. 331 (2011) 1149–1153.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Plous, H. Herzog, Animal research. Reliability of protocol reviews for animal research, Science. 293 (2001) 608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.B. Catrysse, V. Liu, S. Fan, Complete power concentration into a single waveguide in large-scale waveguide array lenses, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6635.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Ang, S. Arboleya, G. Lihua, Y. Chuihui, Q. Nan, M. Suarez, G. Solís, C.G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, M. Gueimonde, The establishment of the infant intestinal microbiome is not affected by rotavirus vaccination, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-J. Hartfuß, T. Geist, Fusion Plasma Diagnostics with mm-Waves, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
D.W. Crippen, ed., ICU Resource Allocation in the New Millennium: Will We Say “No”?, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Villar Piqué, E. Alarcón, 3-Level Buck Converter Analysis and Specific Components Models, in: E. Alarcón (Ed.), CMOS Integrated Switching Power Converters: A Structured Design Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 133–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin Solid Films.

Blog post
D. Andrew, A Geologist Has Found Part Of A Lost Ocean That Existed Long Before The Atlantic, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Trust Fund: Strategies for Safeguarding Highway Financing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Carver, From under the blanket, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, After Stand on Gays, New Name Urged for Margaret Court Arena, New York Times. (2017) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin Solid Films
AbbreviationThin Solid Films
ISSN (print)0040-6090
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles