How to format your references using the Thin Solid Films citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin Solid Films. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, The time is right to confront misconduct, Nature. 488 (2012) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.C. Kuo, J.L. McGrath, Steps and fluctuations of Listeria monocytogenes during actin-based motility, Nature. 407 (2000) 1026–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.-J. Xue, W.-Z. Li, X.-K. Yang, Assortative mating between two sympatric closely-related specialists: inferred from molecular phylogenetic analysis and behavioral data, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5436.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.T. Ricci, S. Menegon, S. Vatrano, G. Mandrile, N. Cerrato, P. Carvalho, M. De Marchi, F. Gaita, C. Giustetto, D.F. Giachino, SCN1B gene variants in Brugada Syndrome: a study of 145 SCN5A-negative patients, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.H. Kaisler, Software Paradigms, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
L. Pla, Quantifying Functional Biodiversity, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Burger, M. Hinze, R. Pinnau, Optimization models for semiconductor dopant profiling, in: C. Cercignani, E. Gabetta (Eds.), Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory: Applications to Gases, Semiconductors, Photons, and Biological Systems, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin Solid Films.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Watch Food Being Digested In This Fascinating And Gross Video, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Vending Operations on Federally Controlled Property, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Casem, Moku Ka Pawa: Drawn to the Light, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Just Answer the Question, New York Times. (2010) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin Solid Films
AbbreviationThin Solid Films
ISSN (print)0040-6090
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles