How to format your references using the Thin Solid Films citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin Solid Films. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Cairns, The usefulness of parody, Nature. 428 (2004) 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hagan, A. Palloni, Social science. Death in Darfur, Science. 313 (2006) 1578–1579.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Weisz, E. Glowatzki, P. Fuchs, The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents, Nature. 461 (2009) 1126–1129.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Lu, Y. Su, S. Das, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Liu, D. Ren, Peptide neurotransmitters activate a cation channel complex of NALCN and UNC-80, Nature. 457 (2009) 741–744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Alexander, J. Walkenbach, 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
P. Stenström, ed., Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers IV, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Muller-Parker, C.F. D’Elia, C.B. Cook, Interactions Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Algae, in: C. Birkeland (Ed.), Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin Solid Films.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Astronomers Don’t Know What Caused This Massive Burst Of X-rays In The Universe, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, State Department: Overseas Emergency Security Program Progressing, But Costs Are Increasing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.A. Rosie, Examining stakeholder perceptions of educational success in the Malagasy public education system, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Gorman, Buzzed: Sweets Raise Hopes Among Bees, New York Times. (2016) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin Solid Films
AbbreviationThin Solid Films
ISSN (print)0040-6090
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles