How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beers, Timothy C. 2005. Astronomy. The first generations of stars. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 390–391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwasaki, Akiko, and Ruslan Medzhitov. 2010. Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 291–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayes, Dugan, Graham B. Griffin, and Gregory S. Engel. 2014. Response to Comment on “Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344: 1099.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nagasaka, Yasuo, Zenas C. Chao, Naomi Hasegawa, Tomonori Notoya, and Naotaka Fujii. 2013. Spontaneous synchronization of arm motion between Japanese macaques. Scientific reports 3: 1151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk, Marian. 2013. High-Frequency Magnetic Components. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bourassa, Martial G., and Jean-Claude Tardif, ed. 2006. Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease. Second Edition. Vol. 258. Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang, Wonmuk. 2015. Biofilament Dynamics: Line-to-Rod-Level Descriptions. In Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology, ed. Suvranu De, Wonmuk Hwang, and Ellen Kuhl, 63–83. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2015. Sonic Tractor Beams Are Now A Reality. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 26.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System. 127994. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davenport, Collin Stewart. 2017. Dynamic Modeling Framework to Predict Instantaneous Status of a Tractor-Dolly System. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2006. QUICK BITE | Peapack; Chocolate And a Touch Of Chic. New York Times, October 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beers 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Beers 2005; Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagasaka et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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