How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schreiber, M. R. 2013. Astronomy. One good measure. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340: 932–933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pera, Martin F., and Patrick P. L. Tam. 2010. Extrinsic regulation of pluripotent stem cells. Nature 465: 713–720.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bunge, John, Slava S. Epstein, and Daniel G. Peterson. 2006. Comment on “Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Hao, Biqin Dong, Zhen Zhang, Hao F. Zhang, and Cheng Sun. 2014. A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy. Scientific reports 4: 4496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu, Hiroshi. 2017. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ding, Min, Jehoshua Eliashberg, and Stefan Stremersch, ed. 2014. Innovation and Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Emerging Practices, Research, and Policies. Vol. 20. International Series in Quantitative Marketing. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Weeks, Sharon R., and Jack W. Tsao. 2012. Sports Concussion. In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis, Management, and Rehabilitation, ed. Jack W. Tsao, 89–101. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. One Simple Act To Stop Climate Change In Its Tracks – Vote. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Investing in the Very Young. 137163. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrock, Gabrielle. 2017. Intergenerational Ontology & Leadership: Uniting the Multigenerational Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2011. Alabama Governor Fails to Prevent Jefferson County’s Record $4 Billion Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schreiber 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pera and Tam 2010; Schreiber 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pera and Tam 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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