How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marley, Mark S. 2008. Astronomy. Exoplanets--seeing is believing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322: 1335–1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R., and F. M. Selten. 2014. Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat. Nature 509: 479–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munsky, Brian, Gregor Neuert, and Alexander van Oudenaarden. 2012. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 183–187.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qiu, Yanyan, Xiao-Hua He, Yanan Zhang, and Jun-Xu Li. 2014. Discriminative stimulus effects of the novel imidazoline I₂ receptor ligand CR4056 in rats. Scientific reports 4: 6605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler, David B. 2013. James Through the Centuries. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Oswald Spring, Úrsula, Hans Günter Brauch, Serrena Eréndira Serrano Oswald, and Juliet Bennett, ed. 2016. Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific. Vol. 5. The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvan, Myvizhi Esai, and David J. Keffer. 2010. Molecular-Level Modeling of the Structure and Proton Transport within the Membrane Electrode Assembly of Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. In Theory and Experiment in Electrocatalysis, ed. Perla B. Balbuena and Venkat R. Subramanian, 133–202. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. A 75-Pound Pearl Has Been Hidden Under A Fisherman’s Bed For 10 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 23.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Month In Review, August 1999: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications. OPA-99-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simsic, Gil. 2012. Revisiting Addiction Using Depth Psychology: The Myth of Exodus as a Blueprint for Recovery. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. Cafe Borgia, Like Its Beat Heyday And Lucrezia Herself, Is History. New York Times, January 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marley 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Marley 2008; Bintanja and Selten 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and Selten 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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