How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merlin, R. 2007. Radiationless electromagnetic interference: evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 927–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, Michael E., and Emily L. Schaller. 2007. The mass of dwarf planet Eris. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 1585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolyaninov, Igor I., Yu-Ju Hung, and Christopher C. Davis. 2007. Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 1699–1701.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Janecka, Jan E., Webb Miller, Thomas H. Pringle, Frank Wiens, Annette Zitzmann, Kristofer M. Helgen, Mark S. Springer, and William J. Murphy. 2007. Molecular and genomic data identify the closest living relative of primates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 792–794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Somjit, Nutapong, Ian Robertson, and Mitchai Chongcheawchamnan. 2016. Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Design for Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Harris, John. 2008. Combinatorics and Graph Theory. Edited by Jeffry L. Hirst and Michael Mossinghoff. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bickhoff, Nils, Svend Hollensen, and Marc Opresnik. 2014. Step 2: Strategic and Operative Marketing Planning—Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning. In The Quintessence of Marketing: What You Really Need to Know to Manage Your Marketing Activities, ed. Svend Hollensen and Marc Opresnik, 47–110. Quintessence Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Inadequacies in Data Processing Planning in the Department of the Interior. FGMSD-78-41. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney, Diane L. 2009. Learning in human -dolphin interactions at zoological facilities. Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2011. Getting Ribs Right, Slowly. New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merlin 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brown and Schaller 2007; Merlin 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Schaller 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Janecka et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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