How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jorgensen, Richard A. 2011. Plant science. A window on the sophistication of plants. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333: 1103–1104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodell, Christopher B., and Jason A. Burdick. 2014. Materials science: Radicals promote magnetic gel assembly. Nature 514: 574–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, Deborah K., Johnson R. Cann, and Javier Escartín. 2006. Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 442: 440–443.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schenkl, S., F. van Mourik, G. van der Zwan, S. Haacke, and M. Chergui. 2005. Probing the ultrafast charge translocation of photoexcited retinal in bacteriorhodopsin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 917–920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pai MD FACC FRCP Edin, Ramdas G., and Padmini Varadarajan MD FACC. 2014. Echocardiography Board Review. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sampaolesi, Roberto. 2009. The Glaucomas: Volume I - Pediatric Glaucomas. Edited by Juan Roberto Sampaolesi and Jorge Zárate. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Diao, Liang, Dan Wang, Zhouhua Peng, and Lei Guo. 2015. Neural Dynamic Surface Control for Three-Phase PWM Voltage Source Rectifier. In Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2015: 12th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2015, Jeju, South Korea, October 15-18, 2015, Proceedings, ed. Xiaolin Hu, Yousheng Xia, Yunong Zhang, and Dongbin Zhao, 28–35. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. How To Beat The Casino – Legally. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Aviation and the Environment: Results From a Survey of the Nation’s 50 Busiest Commercial Service Airports. RCED-00-222. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noxon, Corey. 2017. Sedentism, Agriculture, and the Neolithic Demographic Transition: Insights from Jōmon Paleodemography. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy, Patrick. 2016. ‘Brexit’ Revolt Casts a Shadow Over Clinton’s Path of Caution. New York Times, June 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jorgensen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Jorgensen 2011; Rodell and Burdick 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rodell and Burdick 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schenkl et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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