How to format your references using the Technology Operation Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology Operation Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, Samuel. 2006. Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1569–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sung, Sibum, and Richard M. Amasino. 2004. Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature 427: 159–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacace, F., G. de Petris, and A. Troiani. 2002. Experimental detection of tetranitrogen. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 480–481.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Noguera-Troise, Irene, Christopher Daly, Nicholas J. Papadopoulos, Sandra Coetzee, Pat Boland, Nicholas W. Gale, Hsin Chieh Lin, George D. Yancopoulos, and Gavin Thurston. 2006. Blockade of Dll4 inhibits tumour growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis. Nature 444: 1032–1037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford, Simon, and Mark Saunders. 2012. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rovenski, Vladimir. 2011. Topics in Extrinsic Geometry of Codimension-One Foliations. Edited by Paweł Walczak. 1st ed. SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jagnow, René. 2006. Edmund Husserl on the Applicability of Formal Geometry. In Intuition and the Axiomatic Method, ed. Emily Carson and Renate Huber, 67–85. The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology Operation Management.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. Check Out This Assassin Bug Murdering A Spider In Its Own Web. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 27.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Multiple Teacher Training Programs: Information on Budgets, Services, and Target Groups. HEHS-95-71FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cacciola, Joseph A. 2010. A quantitative study on retaining leadership talent within a naval aviation squadron. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, Ellen. 2017. Fraud Culture Rises in India, Aiming at U.S. New York Times, January 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowles 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Sung and Amasino 2004; Bowles 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sung and Amasino 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Noguera-Troise et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology Operation Management
ISSN (print)0974-8091
ISSN (online)2249-2364

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