How to format your references using the Technology, Knowledge and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Knowledge and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, A. (2014). Computer science. Quantum or not, controversial computer yields no speedup. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6190), 1330–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, S. W., & Ahn, J.-P. (2013). Polycrystalline nanowires of gadolinium-doped ceria via random alignment mediated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Scientific reports, 3, 1606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiliotis, E. T., Kinoshita, M., & Nelson, W. J. (2005). A mitotic septin scaffold required for Mammalian chromosome congression and segregation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5716), 1781–1785.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamamoto, K., Li, J., Garber, J. A. O., Rolfes, J. D., Boursalian, G. B., Borghs, J. C., et al. (2018). Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C-H fluorination. Nature, 554(7693), 511–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G., & Broniatowski, M. (2017). Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Breidlid, A., Cheyeka, A. M., & Farag, A. I. (Eds.). (2015). Perspectives on Youth, HIV/AIDS and Indigenous Knowledges. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhat, M., Pouliot, M., Couture, R., & Vaucher, E. (2014). The Kallikrein-Kinin System in Diabetic Retinopathy. In J. N. Sharma (Ed.), Recent Developments in the Regulation of Kinins (pp. 111–143). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 25). The Apple Car Will Be Really Different … If It Exists. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Indoor Pollution: Status of Federal Research Activities (No. RCED-99-254). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Short, D. D. (2009). Assessing effectiveness and economic efficiency in California Community College transfer advising (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2012, April 22). Adjusting a Waistline for a Wedding, but at What Cost? New York Times, p. ST19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cho 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cho 2014; Kim and Ahn 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Ahn 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
AbbreviationTechnol. Knowl. Learn.
ISSN (print)2211-1662
ISSN (online)2211-1670
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Mathematics (miscellaneous)

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