How to format your references using the Technology, Knowledge and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Knowledge and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harvey, R. P. (2010). Planetary science. Carbonates and Martian climate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5990), 400–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Izawa, D., & Pines, J. (2015). The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C. Nature, 517(7536), 631–634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Madden, M. E. E., Bodnar, R. J., & Rimstidt, J. D. (2004). Jarosite as an indicator of water-limited chemical weathering on Mars. Nature, 431(7010), 821–823.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Organ, C. L., Janes, D. E., Meade, A., & Pagel, M. (2009). Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct marine reptiles. Nature, 461(7262), 389–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glaser, R. (2015). Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wetmore, S., & Rubin, A. (Eds.). (2015). Vestibular Migraine. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fijak, M., Bhushan, S., & Meinhardt, A. (2009). The Immune Privilege of the Testis. In W. K. H. Krause & R. K. Naz (Eds.), Immune Infertility: The Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Infertility (pp. 69–77). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, May 13). How Many Arms Does Our Galaxy Have? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Ed-Flex Program: Increase in Flexibility Useful but Limited by Scope of Waiver Authority (No. T-HEHS-99-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, M. P. (2013). Cenozoic kinematics of the Little Pine fault, Santa Maria Basin, California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W., & Romero, S. (2015, May 16). Allies Resist U.S. Strategy in Drug Fight. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harvey 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Harvey 2010; Izawa and Pines 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Izawa and Pines 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Organ et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
AbbreviationTechnol. Knowl. Learn.
ISSN (print)2211-1662
ISSN (online)2211-1670
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Mathematics (miscellaneous)

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