How to format your references using the Technology, Knowledge and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Knowledge and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guan, J.-L. (2004). Cell biology. Integrins, rafts, Rac, and Rho. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 773–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graham, S., & Hegde, D. (2015). Intellectual Property. Disclosing patents’ secrets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6219), 236–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aziz, T., Stein, J., & Yogeshwar, R. (2011). Animal testing: TV or not TV? Nature, 470(7335), 457–459.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Csikor, F. F., Motz, C., Weygand, D., Zaiser, M., & Zapperi, S. (2007). Dislocation avalanches, strain bursts, and the problem of plastic forming at the micrometer scale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5848), 251–254.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoy, J. (2015). Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dronamraju, K. R. (2006). Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects. (P. Arese, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Massone, C., & Nunzi, E. (2012). Pathogenesis. In E. Nunzi & C. Massone (Eds.), Leprosy: A Practical Guide (pp. 39–42). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, May 24). Solar Superflares Might Be Responsible For Life On Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Federal Bureau of Investigation: Actions Taken to Address Most Procurement Recommendations (No. GAO-11-794). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
An, D. (2017). Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, December 2). Berlusconi a Precedent for Trump. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guan 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Graham and Hegde 2015; Guan 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Graham and Hegde 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Csikor et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
AbbreviationTechnol. Knowl. Learn.
ISSN (print)2211-1662
ISSN (online)2211-1670
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Mathematics (miscellaneous)

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