How to format your references using the Technology, Knowledge and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Knowledge and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grubb, M. (2012). Emissions trading: Cap and trade finds new energy. Nature, 491(7426), 666–667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lane, N., & Martin, W. (2010). The energetics of genome complexity. Nature, 467(7318), 929–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y., Moon, K.-S., & Wong, C. P. (2005). Materials science. Electronics without lead. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1419–1420.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ricaurte, G. A., Yuan, J., Hatzidimitriou, G., Cord, B. J., & McCann, U. D. (2002). Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (“ecstasy”). Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5590), 2260–2263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu, M. (2016). Cyber-Risk Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reitz, E. J., Scudder, S. J., & Scarry, C. M. (Eds.). (2008). Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology (Second Edition.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ishikawa, M., Nagamatsu, M., Hagiwara, T., Yamamoto, N., Kiriake, F., Nishida, T., et al. (2010). Brain-Inspired Emergence of Behaviors Based on Values and Curiosity in Mobile Robots. In A. Hanazawa, T. Miki, & K. Horio (Eds.), Brain-Inspired Information Technology (pp. 33–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 5). New Theory As To How Octopuses Match Color Despite Seeing In Black And White. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Human Services: Sustained and Coordinated Efforts Could Facilitate Data Sharing While Protecting Privacy (No. GAO-13-106). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burugupalli, R. T. (2017). 2x1 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Parallel Cancellation Scheme with Viterbi Decoding (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, February 20). Mets Start Spring as Big Spenders, and Carrying an Outfield Surplus. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grubb 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Grubb 2012; Lane and Martin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lane and Martin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ricaurte et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
AbbreviationTechnol. Knowl. Learn.
ISSN (print)2211-1662
ISSN (online)2211-1670
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Mathematics (miscellaneous)

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