How to format your references using the Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes PJ (2010) Medicine. Neutrophils find smoke attractive. Science 330:40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan KD, Johnson MA (2010) Chemistry. Downsizing the hydrated electron’s lair. Science 329:42–43
A journal article with 3 authors
Martini IB, Barthel ER, Schwartz BJ (2001) Optical control of electrons during electron transfer. Science 293:462–465
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yadav AP, Fuentes R, Zhang H, et al (2014) Chronic spinal cord electrical stimulation protects against 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Sci Rep 4:3839

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic SG (2011) Advanced Wireless Communications & Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sarma KV (2008) Gaṇita-Yukti-Bhāṣā (Rationales in Mathematical Astronomy) of Jyeṣṭhadeva: Volume II - Astronomy. Hindustan Book Agency, Gurgaon
A chapter in an edited book
Goldin GA (2016) Some Comments on Indistinguishable Particles and Interpretation of the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function. In: Kielanowski P, Ali ST, Bieliavsky P, et al (eds) Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXIV Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 28 – July 4, 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Sweden Plans To Become World’s First Fossil Fuel-Free Nation. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) SSA Data Communications Contracts With Paradyne Corporation Demonstrate the Need for Improved Management Controls. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osifalujo A (2015) Code-switching in Working African Americans: Internalized Racism, Minority Status, and Organizational Commitment. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B (2015) U.A.W. Chief Expects Deal on Contract at Chrysler. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
AbbreviationProbiotics Antimicrob. Proteins
ISSN (print)1867-1306
ISSN (online)1867-1314
ScopeMolecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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