How to format your references using the Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang S (2015) Self-assembled materials. Supramolecular lattices from tetrahedral nanobuilding blocks. Science 348:396–397
A journal article with 2 authors
Beuther H, Schilke P (2004) Fragmentation in massive star formation. Science 303:1167–1169
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn B, Kamath H, Tarascon J-M (2011) Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices. Science 334:928–935
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Depuydt M, Leonard SE, Vertommen D, et al (2009) A periplasmic reducing system protects single cysteine residues from oxidation. Science 326:1109–1111

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher MJ (2010) Retirement Portfolios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Funari P, Zarankin A, Salerno M (2010) Memories from Darkness: Archaeology of Repression and Resistance in Latin America. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Abdi AA (2013) Engaging Africanist Philosophies and Epistemologies in Education for Social Development. In: Shultz L, Kajner T (eds) Engaged Scholarship: The Politics of Engagement and Disengagement. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 55–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Millions Of Spiders Fleeing Floods Embellish Land With Spectacular Webs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Federal-Aid Highways: Improved Guidance Could Enhance States’ Use of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Selection. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jeffries RE (2010) An NMR-compatible bioartificial liver for metabolomic investigation of drug action. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2000) Still a Fan Favorite. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
AbbreviationProbiotics Antimicrob. Proteins
ISSN (print)1867-1306
ISSN (online)1867-1314
ScopeMolecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

Other styles