How to format your references using the Cognitive Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruth T. Accelerating production of medical isotopes. Nature. 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):536–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pienitz R, Vincent WF. Effect of climate change relative to ozone depletion on UV exposure in subarctic lakes. Nature. 2000 Mar 30;404(6777):484–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agarwala S, Sanders TA, Ragsdale CW. Sonic hedgehog control of size and shape in midbrain pattern formation. Science. 2001 Mar 16;291(5511):2147–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim H, Park K-Y, Hong J, Kang K. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 2014 Jun 13;4:5278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann H, Steinle A, Hahn V. Bauen mit Betonfertigteilen im Hochbau. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Winkler F, editor. Algebraic Informatics: 4th International Conference, CAI 2011, Linz, Austria, June 21-24, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Escobar I, Sánchez-Ortiga E, Saavedra G, Martínez-Corral M. New Analytical Tools for Evaluation of Spherical Aberration in Optical Microscopy. In: Diaspro A, editor. Optical Fluorescence Microscopy: From the Spectral to the Nano Dimension. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Human Hands Are More Primitive Than Chimpanzees’. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The President’s Second Special Message for FY 1983. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jan. Report No.: OGC-83-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PR. Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herszenhorn DM, Barry E. Russian Voters Send a Message To Putin’s Party. New York Times. 2011 Dec 4;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruth 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Pienitz and Vincent 2000; Ruth 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pienitz and Vincent 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Research
AbbreviationCogn. Res. Princ. Implic.
ISSN (online)2365-7464

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