How to format your references using the Cognitive Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles MT. How metrics could have saved UK car industry. Nature. 2000 May 4;405(6782):13–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gestwicki JE, Kiessling LL. Inter-receptor communication through arrays of bacterial chemoreceptors. Nature. 2002 Jan 3;415(6867):81–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wallace K, Hardy G, Serabyn E. Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):700–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiong J-P, Stehle T, Zhang R, Joachimiak A, Frech M, Goodman SL, et al. Crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alpha Vbeta3 in complex with an Arg-Gly-Asp ligand. Science. 2002 Apr 5;296(5565):151–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort H. SDH/SONET Explained in Functional Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Angeles J, Boulet B, Clark JJ, Kövecses J, Siddiqi K, editors. Brain, Body and Machine: Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the McGill University Centre for Intelligent Machines. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Woolley SMN. The Songbird Auditory System. In: Helekar SA, editor. Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 61–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Hostile Is Space? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Sep. Report No.: 127994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rensing RI. Developing a notebook protocol for the high school chemistry classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Diplomatic Traveling Supporter Of U.S. Team Sees the Big Picture. New York Times. 2010 Jun 25;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knowles 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gestwicki and Kiessling 2002; Knowles 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gestwicki and Kiessling 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiong et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Research
AbbreviationCogn. Res. Princ. Implic.
ISSN (online)2365-7464

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