How to format your references using the Cognitive Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fox A. Computer science. Cloud computing--what’s in it for me as a scientist? Science. 2011 Jan 28;331(6016):406–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrlich PR, Kennedy D. Sustainability. Millennium assessment of human behavior. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):562–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perlo J, Casanova F, Blümich B. Ex situ NMR in highly homogeneous fields: 1H spectroscopy. Science. 2007 Feb 23;315(5815):1110–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Graetz N, Friedman J, Osgood-Zimmerman A, Burstein R, Biehl MH, Shields C, et al. Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa. Nature. 2018 Feb 28;555(7694):48–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halbich IW. Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 1993. p. 46.
An edited book
McCormack FX, Panos RJ, Trapnell BC, editors. Molecular Basis of Pulmonary Disease: Insights from Rare Lung Disorders. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Croft BE, Vollebregt EAH, Thompson DJ. An Investigation of Velocity-Dependent Friction in Wheel-Rail Rolling Contact. In: Maeda T, Gautier P-E, Hanson CE, Hemsworth B, Nelson JT, Schulte-Werning B, et al., editors. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise, Nagahama, Japan, 18–22 October 2010. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2012. p. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Demand Investigation After More Mysterious Holes Appear In Siberia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: FAA Preboard Passenger Screening Test Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Apr. Report No.: RCED-87-125FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S. Virtuoso piano transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian tradition in the twenty-first century [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Accreditation Restored At Nassau Medical Center. New York Times. 2007 Jun 3;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fox 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrlich and Kennedy 2005; Fox 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrlich and Kennedy 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Graetz et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Research
AbbreviationCogn. Res. Princ. Implic.
ISSN (online)2365-7464

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