How to format your references using the Cognitive Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingstone MS. Is it warm? Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency? Science. 2000 Nov 17;290(5495):1299b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chapman A, Wyndham J. Human rights. A human right to science. Science. 2013 Jun 14;340(6138):1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yartsev MM, Witter MP, Ulanovsky N. Grid cells without theta oscillations in the entorhinal cortex of bats. Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7371):103–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R. The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature. 2002 May 30;417(6888):523–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akivis MA, Goldberg VV. Conformal Differential Geometry and Its Generalizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
Gallego M, Schofield N, editors. The Political Economy of Social Choices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Natour G. The Nakba—Flight and Expulsion of the Palestinians in 1948. In: Hoppe A, editor. Catastrophes: Views from Natural and Human Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 81–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. DIY Can Be Dangerous – But It’s The Invisible Dust That May Harm You The Most [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Improvements in Managing Research and Development Could Help Reduce Inefficiencies and Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Mar. Report No.: GAO-11-464T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weisko P. Wading Tiger Swimming Dragon: A Study on Comparative Indo-Sino Naval Development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. New Nets Announcer Shows Flair and Hair. New York Times. 2011 Dec 20;B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingstone 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman and Wyndham 2013; Livingstone 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chapman and Wyndham 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Research
AbbreviationCogn. Res. Princ. Implic.
ISSN (online)2365-7464

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