How to format your references using the Technology in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N.L. Haigwood, HIV: tied down by its own receptor, Nature. 519 (2015) 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.T. Fisher, K. Becker, Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data, Nature. 403 (2000) 71–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Acevedo, L. Brodsky, R. Andino, Mutational and fitness landscapes of an RNA virus revealed through population sequencing, Nature. 505 (2014) 686–690.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Sato, K. Kojima, C. Sakuma, M. Murakami, Y. Tamada, H. Kitani, Production of scFv-conjugated affinity silk film and its application to a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Derryberry, Basic Data Analysis for Time Series with R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
T.-C. Wu, C.-L. Lei, V. Rijmen, D.-T. Lee, eds., Information Security: 11th International Conference, ISC 2008, Taipei, Taiwan, September 15-18, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Knobloch, Analyticité, équipollence et théorie des courbes chez Leibniz, in: N.B. Goethe, P. Beeley, D. Rabouin (Eds.), G.W. Leibniz, Interrelations between Mathematics and Philosophy, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 89–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology in Society.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Alcohol Makes You Friendlier – But Only To Certain People, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Greene, Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Castle, As Clock Ticks on Exit From E.U., Britain Seems Adrift, New York Times. (2017) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology in Society
AbbreviationTechnol. Soc.
ISSN (print)0160-791X
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Sociology and Political Science

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