How to format your references using the Technology in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Eiler, Geology. On the origins of granites, Science. 315 (2007) 951–952.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.D. Lin, W.-C. Chu, Physics. Controlling atomic line shapes, Science. 340 (2013) 694–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.J. Killian, M.J. Jutras, E.A. Buffalo, A map of visual space in the primate entorhinal cortex, Nature. 491 (2012) 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Mariathasan, D.S. Weiss, K. Newton, J. McBride, K. O’Rourke, M. Roose-Girma, W.P. Lee, Y. Weinrauch, D.M. Monack, V.M. Dixit, Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP, Nature. 440 (2006) 228–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Homès, Fundamentals of Software Testing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
S. Greco, Y. Hata, S. Hirano, M. Inuiguchi, S. Miyamoto, H.S. Nguyen, R. Słowiński, eds., Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing: 5th International Conference, RSCTC 2006 Kobe, Japan, November 6-8, 2006 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Iafrate, A. Stagnitti, A. Laghi, Preparazione del paziente e altri aspetti pratici, in: R. Passariello (Ed.), La Colonscopia Virtuale, Springer, Milano, 2008: pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology in Society.

Blog post
T. Hale, The Science Of Infidelity, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FCC: The Local Multipoint Distribution Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Greene, Repercussions of the Dark Valley - Reenacting And Reinterpreting an Era via Fantasy Manga, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, In the Motor City, Success on the Field and Hope Off It, New York Times. (2011) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology in Society
AbbreviationTechnol. Soc.
ISSN (print)0160-791X
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Sociology and Political Science

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