How to format your references using the Technology in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.L. Walsworth, Applied physics. The maser at 50, Science. 306 (2004) 236–237.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.E. Ellis, G.P. Miles, Plant biology. One for all?, Science. 292 (2001) 2022–2023.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Van Dyck, J.R. Jinschek, F.-R. Chen, “Big Bang” tomography as a new route to atomic-resolution electron tomography, Nature. 486 (2012) 243–246.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.R. Skop, H. Liu, J. Yates 3rd, B.J. Meyer, R. Heald, Dissection of the mammalian midbody proteome reveals conserved cytokinesis mechanisms, Science. 305 (2004) 61–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Paultre, Dynamics of Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
S. Miksch, D. Riaño, A. ten Teije, eds., Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Pascucci, W.J. Runggaldier, Tassi d’interesse, in: W.J. Runggaldier (Ed.), Finanza Matematica: Teoria e Problemi per Modelli Multiperiodali, Springer, Milano, 2009: pp. 199–261.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology in Society.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Buzz Aldrin Describes His Encounter With A “UFO,” IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Response to Request for Comments on Federal Contribution to Corporation for Public Broadcasting], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Kim, Characterization of Ribosomal S6 Protein Phosphorylation and Posssible Control of Ribosome Biogenesis in Arabidopsis Cell Culture, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, To Say Hello To Dolly, Say Bye to $1,009, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology in Society
AbbreviationTechnol. Soc.
ISSN (print)0160-791X
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Sociology and Political Science

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