How to format your references using the Technology in Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology in Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Collinge, Medicine. Prion strain mutation and selection, Science. 328 (2010) 1111–1112.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.M. Dawson, V.L. Dawson, Molecular pathways of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease, Science. 302 (2003) 819–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Bunge, S.S. Epstein, D.G. Peterson, Comment on “Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil,” Science. 313 (2006) 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Ge, M. Guermah, C.-X. Yuan, M. Ito, A.E. Wallberg, B.M. Spiegelman, R.G. Roeder, Transcription coactivator TRAP220 is required for PPAR gamma 2-stimulated adipogenesis, Nature. 417 (2002) 563–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.N. Molino Sr., Emergency Incident Management Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
M.T. Islam, M. Rahman, P. Pandey, C.K. Jha, A. Aeron, eds., Bacilli and Agrobiotechnology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Harężlak, A. Werner, Database Access and Management with the Use of the MOODLE Platform, in: Z.S. Hippe, J.L. Kulikowski, T. Mroczek (Eds.), Human – Computer Systems Interaction: Backgrounds and Applications 2: Part 1, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology in Society.

Blog post
J. Davis, Over 95% Of The World’s Population Suffer From Health Problems, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Selected Contracts, Purchase Orders, and Grants Awarded to Indian Tribes and Organizations During Fiscal Year 1971, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.R. Pratt, Analysis of the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the LENSTM process for steels using the finite element method, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, Where Gold Cloth Is the Standard, New York Times. (2017) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology in Society
AbbreviationTechnol. Soc.
ISSN (print)0160-791X
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Sociology and Political Science

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