How to format your references using the Europace citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Europace. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marti K. Planetary science. Sampling the Sun. Science 2007;318:401–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trent JM, Touchman JW. Cancer. The gene topography of cancer. Science 2007;318:1079–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams JR, Dicarlo L, Marcus CM. Quantum Hall effect in a gate-controlled p-n junction of graphene. Science 2007;317:638–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Judge J, Wilson GJ, Macarthur R, Delahay RJ, McDonald RA. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013. Sci Rep 2014;4:3809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd RK, Basic C, Bethem RA. Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Lichtfouse E, eds. Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rajruangrabin J, Ranatunga I, Popa DO. Adaptive Interface Mapping for Intuitive Teleoperation of Multi-DOF Robots. In: Herrmann G, Studley M, Pearson M, Conn A, Melhuish C, Witkowski M, et al., eds. Advances in Autonomous Robotics: Joint Proceedings of the 13th Annual TAROS Conference and the 15th Annual FIRA RoboWorld Congress, Bristol, UK, August 20-23, 2012 Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Europace.

Blog post
Andrew E. Were Wolves Dependent On Humans Long Before They Became Man’s Best Friend? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost and Legal Authority for Selected Financial Literacy Programs and Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Jul. Report No.: GAO-11-781R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson R. The effect of Interactive Metronome training on sports confidence and putting performance [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A Love Story Affirmed Life In Time of War. New York Times 2011;SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropace
ISSN (print)1099-5129
ISSN (online)1532-2092
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles