How to format your references using the Europace citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Europace. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson M. Test the effects of ash on jet engines. Nature 2015;520:133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan J, Aldrich RW. LRRC26 auxiliary protein allows BK channel activation at resting voltage without calcium. Nature 2010;466:513–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Echtay KS, Winkler E, Klingenberg M. Coenzyme Q is an obligatory cofactor for uncoupling protein function. Nature 2000;408:609–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kato Y, Myers RC, Driscoll DC, Gossard AC, Levy J, Awschalom DD. Gigahertz electron spin manipulation using voltage-controlled g-tensor modulation. Science 2003;299:1201–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Chouikha M. Organizational Design for Knowledge Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Carbó Valverde S, Cuadros Solas PJ, Rodríguez Fernández F, eds. Bank Funding, Financial Instruments and Decision-Making in the Banking Industry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakahara J, Sepehrdad P, Zhang B, Wang M. Linear (Hull) and Algebraic Cryptanalysis of the Block Cipher PRESENT. In: Garay JA, Miyaji A, Otsuka A, eds. Cryptology and Network Security: 8th International Conference, CANS 2009, Kanazawa, Japan, December 12-14, 2009. Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 58–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Europace.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brazilian Wasp Venom Kills Cancer Cells, But Not Healthy Cells. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Title 6 T&A Data (NASA). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 May. Report No.: AIMD-95-140R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vento-Wilson M. The role of the speech-language pathologist and augmentative and alternative communication with acute care patients with severe communication impairments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Russian Billionaires Still Like Valuable Art. New York Times 2008;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropace
ISSN (print)1099-5129
ISSN (online)1532-2092
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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