How to format your references using the Europace citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Europace. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Liquid fuel synthesis: making it up as you go along. Nature 2006;444:677–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mullins CB, Sitz GO. Chemistry. Taking a selective bite out of methane. Science 2008;319:736–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascoli V, Turiault M, Lüscher C. Reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic potentiation resets drug-induced adaptive behaviour. Nature 2011;481:71–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Le S, Chen H, Cong P, Lin J, Dröge P, Yan J. Mechanosensing of DNA bending in a single specific protein-DNA complex. Sci Rep 2013;3:3508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu J, Dong X, Chen X, Tong X, Zhang X, Xu S. Fault Location and Service Restoration for Electrical Distribution Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Zhang J, ed. Ecological Continuum from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Watersheds to the East China Sea Continental Margin. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bianchi S, Pianese A. Scaling Laws in Stock Markets. An Analysis of Prices and Volumes. In: Perna C, Sibillo M, eds. Mathematical and Statistical Methods in Insurance and Finance Milano: Springer; 2008. p. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Europace.

Blog post
Davis J. Estrogen In Suburban Yards Might Be Turning Frogs Female. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Jun. Report No.: B-176104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomko PR. Understanding the factors affecting the influence of children on their parents’ total purchases [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Quantum Leaps. New York Times 2012;BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropace
ISSN (print)1099-5129
ISSN (online)1532-2092
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles