How to format your references using the Europace citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Europace. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Damasio A. Fundamental feelings. Nature 2001;413:781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ammerman AJ, McClennen CE. URBAN ECOLOGY: Saving Venice. Science 2000;289:1301–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur B, McLoughlin S, Vajda V. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science 2014;343:1376–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ferrant S, Caballero Y, Perrin J, Gascoin S, Dewandel B, Aulong S, et al. Projected impacts of climate change on farmers’ extraction of groundwater from crystalline aquifers in South India. Sci Rep 2014;4:3697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacIsaac B, Langton R. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
BassiriRad H, ed. Nutrient Acquisition by Plants: An Ecological Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Ageev AA. A 3/2-Approximation for the Proportionate Two-Machine Flow Shop Scheduling with Minimum Delays. In: Kaklamanis C, Skutella M, eds. Approximation and Online Algorithms: 5th International Workshop, WAOA 2007, Eilat, Israel, October 11-12, 2007. Revised Papers Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Europace.

Blog post
Andrew D. People With Autism Make More Logical Decisions. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gray Market Vehicle Program: Extension Warranted, but Improvements in Vehicle Identification Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: RCED-94-22.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis PA. Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walker M. Choosing Photographs Over Paintings. New York Times 2017;C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropace
ISSN (print)1099-5129
ISSN (online)1532-2092
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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