How to format your references using the Europace citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Europace. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson TE. Neuroscience. Addicted rats. Science 2004;305:951–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barve A, Wagner A. A latent capacity for evolutionary innovation through exaptation in metabolic systems. Nature 2013;500:203–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi K, Sousa Lopes SMC de, Surani MA. Germ cell specification in mice. Science 2007;316:394–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ule A, Schram A, Riedl A, Cason TN. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers. Science 2009;326:1701–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu M. Cyber-Risk Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Collins B, Bradshaw E, eds. Bowel Dysfunction: A Comprehensive Guide for Healthcare Professionals. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hentrich C. Synchronization Patterns for Process-Driven and Service-Oriented Architectures. In: Noble J, Johnson R, eds. Transactions on Pattern Languages of Programming I Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 103–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Europace.

Blog post
Andrew E. Icy Plumes Bursting From Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Suggest It Could Harbour Life. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Equal Employment Opportunity Program Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Apr. Report No.: FPCD-75-107.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH. Diffusion of oxygen and lithium isotopes at a contact between the Bushveld Complex and metasedimentary rock: Implications for the timescale of Phepane Dome diapirism [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. War Is Hell? No, One-Dimensional. New York Times 2017;AR116.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropace
ISSN (print)1099-5129
ISSN (online)1532-2092
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles