How to format your references using the De Economist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for De Economist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. (2012). Psoriasis. Nature, 492(7429), S49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings, C. A., & Relman, D. A. (2002). Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5575), 1976–1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieman, C. E., Adams, W. K., & Perkins, K. K. (2008). PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5902), 682–683.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Walburger, A., Koul, A., Ferrari, G., Nguyen, L., Prescianotto-Baschong, C., Huygen, K., et al. (2004). Protein kinase G from pathogenic mycobacteria promotes survival within macrophages. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1800–1804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, T. H. (2016). Leaders and Innovators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mathis, K. (Ed.). (2012). Efficiency, Sustainability, and Justice to Future Generations (Vol. 98). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Buttyán, L., Holczer, T., & Schaffer, P. (2005). Spontaneous Cooperation in Multi-domain Sensor Networks. In R. Molva, G. Tsudik, & D. Westhoff (Eds.), Security and Privacy in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks: Second European Workshop, ESAS 2005, Visegrad, Hungary, July 13-14, 2005. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 42–53). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for De Economist.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 28). This Photo Of Someone’s Shiny Legs Is An Illusion, And We’re Freaking Out. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Alternative Jet Fuels: Federal Activities Support Development and Usage, but Long-term Commercial Viability Hinges on Market Factors (No. GAO-14-407). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowe, C. (2009). A correlational study of the relationship between Learner Autonomy and academic performance (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, March 24). The Head Honcho’s Head Honcho. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Cummings and Relman 2002; Grayson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cummings and Relman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Walburger et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDe Economist
AbbreviationEconomist (Leiden)
ISSN (print)0013-063X
ISSN (online)1572-9982
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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