How to format your references using the De Economist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for De Economist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. (2005). Hot from the vent. Nature, 435(7039), 235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler, D. L., & Clark, C. J. (2003). Ecology and evolution. Darwin’s hummingbirds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5619), 588–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helled, R., Galanti, E., & Kaspi, Y. (2015). Saturn’s fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness. Nature, 520(7546), 202–204.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Montrose, K., Yang, Y., Sun, X., Wiles, S., & Krissansen, G. W. (2013). Xentry, a new class of cell-penetrating peptide uniquely equipped for delivery of drugs. Scientific reports, 3, 1661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Funk, W., Dammann, V., Donnevert, G., Ianelli, S., Ianelli, E., & Gray, A. (2006). Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bettmann, J. E., & Demetri Friedman, D. (Eds.). (2013). Attachment-Based Clinical Work with Children and Adolescents. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Nixon, R. (2014). Doing Critical Participatory Action Research: The ‘Planner’ Part. In R. McTaggart & R. Nixon (Eds.), The Action Research Planner: Doing Critical Participatory Action Research (pp. 85–114). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for De Economist.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, August 12). Global Extinction Rates Could Be Way Higher Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-98-78R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faye, C. (2017). Dust (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, June 7). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Weapons Found Near Vnukovo Airport. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Altshuler and Clark 2003; Moore 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Altshuler and Clark 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Montrose et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDe Economist
AbbreviationEconomist (Leiden)
ISSN (print)0013-063X
ISSN (online)1572-9982
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles