How to format your references using the De Economist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for De Economist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, A. M. (2009). Astronomy. Early solar system chronology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 951–952.
A journal article with 2 authors
Szalay, A., & Gray, J. (2001). The world-wide telescope. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2037–2040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilbaud, R., Butler, I. B., & Ellam, R. M. (2011). Abiotic pyrite formation produces a large Fe isotope fractionation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1548–1551.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dawes, A. M. C., Illing, L., Clark, S. M., & Gauthier, D. J. (2005). All-optical switching in rubidium vapor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5722), 672–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, P. (2016). Structural Design of Buildings. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Markidis, S., & Laure, E. (Eds.). (2015). Solving Software Challenges for Exascale: International Conference on Exascale Applications and Software, EASC 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2-3, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 8759). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hurst, C. S., & Eby, L. T. (2012). Mentoring in Organizations: Mentor or Tormentor? In N. P. Reilly, M. J. Sirgy, & C. A. Gorman (Eds.), Work and Quality of Life: Ethical Practices in Organizations (pp. 81–94). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for De Economist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 27). Video: deep-sea showdown between squid and fish. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Commercial Driver’s Licensing: Federal Oversight of State Programs Could Be Improved (No. GAO-15-607). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishna, S. (2017). Pediatric Pal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, April 3). N.H.L. Says Its Players Will Skip 2018 Olympics. New York Times, p. B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Davis 2009; Szalay and Gray 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Szalay and Gray 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Dawes et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDe Economist
AbbreviationEconomist (Leiden)
ISSN (print)0013-063X
ISSN (online)1572-9982
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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