How to format your references using the De Economist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for De Economist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gordon, D. M. (2013). The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies. Nature, 498(7452), 91–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aderem, A., & Ulevitch, R. J. (2000). Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature, 406(6797), 782–787.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, A., Romanowicz, B., & Takeuchi, N. (2005). An observation of PKJKP: inferences on inner core shear properties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1453–1455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tschauner, O., Huang, S., Greenberg, E., Prakapenka, V. B., Ma, C., Rossman, G. R., et al. (2018). Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6380), 1136–1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lütolf-Carroll, C., Antti Pirnes, & Withers LLP. (2009). From Innovation to Cash Flows. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saito, T., Yamashita, J., Oka, Y., & Ishiwatari, Y. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Adkins, W. A., & Davidson, M. G. (2012). Second Order Linear Differential Equations. In M. G. Davidson (Ed.), Ordinary Differential Equations (pp. 331–381). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for De Economist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 13). What Commercial Aircraft Will Look Like In 2050. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Aviation Safety: Installation of Smoke Detection and Fire Suppression Systems in U.S. Transport Aircraft (No. RCED-98-54R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ding, H. (2012). Mode of Action for Hexavalent Chromium Carcinogenicity in Drinking Water (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger, D. E., Rosenberg, M., & Schmidt, M. S. (2017, May 10). Republicans Join Calls for Independent Investigator. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gordon 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Aderem and Ulevitch 2000; Gordon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aderem and Ulevitch 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Tschauner et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDe Economist
AbbreviationEconomist (Leiden)
ISSN (print)0013-063X
ISSN (online)1572-9982
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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