How to format your references using the De Economist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for De Economist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J. (2001). Relaxed restrictions blamed for rise in foot and mouth. Nature, 413(6852), 98.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wright, K. P., Jr, & Czeisler, C. A. (2002). Absence of circadian phase resetting in response to bright light behind the knees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5581), 571.
A journal article with 3 authors
McElwain, J. C., Wagner, P. J., & Hesselbo, S. P. (2009). Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1554–1556.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Steele, I. A., Mundell, C. G., Smith, R. J., Kobayashi, S., & Guidorzi, C. (2009). Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102. Nature, 462(7274), 767–769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chong, Y. Y. (2004). Investment Risk Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Bělohlávek, R. (2005). Fuzzy Equational Logic. (V. Vychodil, Ed.) (Vol. 186). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Olsen, N., Hulot, G., & Sabaka, T. J. (2010). Sources of the Geomagnetic Field and the Modern Data That EnableTheir Investigation. In W. Freeden, M. Z. Nashed, & T. Sonar (Eds.), Handbook of Geomathematics (pp. 105–124). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for De Economist.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, May 3). Unlike Darwin’s Finches, Raptor Beaks Come In One Shape. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Higher Education: Tuition Increases and Colleges’ Efforts to Contain Costs (No. HEHS-98-227). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, S. R. (2009). Freshman transition programs: Effect on ninth grade student preparedness (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, December 12). Large Funds Are Dropping Investments in Fossil Fuels. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Giles 2001; Wright and Czeisler 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wright and Czeisler 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Steele et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDe Economist
AbbreviationEconomist (Leiden)
ISSN (print)0013-063X
ISSN (online)1572-9982
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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