How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, Michelle. 2011. “Medical Research Masterclass.” Nature 478(7368):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattaini, Katherine R., and Matthew G. Vander Heiden. 2012. “Cancer. Glycosylation to Adapt to Stress.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337(6097):925–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Yong A., An-Chen Feng, and Patricia A. Ganz. 2014. “Health Services Utilisation in Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan.” Scientific Reports 4:7466.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tegze, M., G. Faigel, S. Marchesini, M. Belakhovsky, and O. Ulrich. 2000. “Imaging Light Atoms by X-Ray Holography.” Nature 407(6800):38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sagolla, Dom. 2009. 140 Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saha, Sujoy Kumar. 2016. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels. edited by G. P. Celata. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, Xiaolong, Jianmin Jiang, and Geyong Min. 2009. “Multi-Agent Based Personal File Management Using Case Based Reasoning.” Pp. 26–33 in Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by E. Corchado, X. Wu, E. Oja, Á. Herrero, and B. Baruque. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists Discover ‘Reset Button’ For The Body’s Biological Clock.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Information Technology: Management Improvements Needed on the Department of Homeland Security’s Next Generation Information Sharing System. GAO-09-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mantilla, Alicia N. 2012. “The Differences in the Educational Experiences and Caregiver Involvement in Education between Youth in Foster Care and Those in Care of Their Biological Parents.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ochs, Susan M. 2016. “At Banks, the Buck Stops Short.” New York Times, September 15, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson 2011; Mattaini and Vander Heiden 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mattaini and Vander Heiden 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Feng, and Ganz 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tegze et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

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