How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
RajBhandary, Uttam L. 2011. “Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011).” Nature 480(7377):322.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thébault, Elisa, and Colin Fontaine. 2010. “Stability of Ecological Communities and the Architecture of Mutualistic and Trophic Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329(5993):853–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zarrinpar, Ali, Sang-Hyun Park, and Wendell A. Lim. 2003. “Optimization of Specificity in a Cellular Protein Interaction Network by Negative Selection.” Nature 426(6967):676–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, X. B., X. Yang, J. B. Nicholas, and L. S. Wang. 2001. “Bulk-like Features in the Photoemission Spectra of Hydrated Doubly Charged Anion Clusters.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5545):1322–25.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagliamonte, Sali A. 2015. Making Waves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sarwat, Maryam, Altaf Ahmad, and M. Z. Abdin, eds. 2013. Stress Signaling in Plants: Genomics and Proteomics Perspective, Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Hendrik Van den Berg. 2013. “Who Immigrates? Theory and Evidence.” Pp. 79–107 in The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy, edited by H. Van den Berg. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Light From 12 BILLION Year Old Explosion Reaches Earth.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. New Denver Airport: Impact of the Delayed Baggage System. RCED-95-35BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, Michelle L. 2017. “The Power of Spoken Word: Oral History As Social Work Pedagogy.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John, and Emily Steel. 2017. “HBO Assesses Cyberattack Damage.” New York Times, August 3, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (RajBhandary 2011).
This sentence cites two references (RajBhandary 2011; Thébault and Fontaine 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thébault and Fontaine 2010)
  • Three authors: (Zarrinpar, Park, and Lim 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

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