How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, Rex. 2002. “Dinosaur Curators Plot Mating Game.” Nature 420(6913):259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elmquist, Joel K., and Jeffrey S. Flier. 2004. “Neuroscience. The Fat-Brain Axis Enters a New Dimension.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304(5667):63–64.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsori, Yoav, François Tournilhac, and Ludwik Leibler. 2004. “Demixing in Simple Fluids Induced by Electric Field Gradients.” Nature 430(6999):544–47.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tanaka, Hideaki, Koji Kato, Eiki Yamashita, Tomoyuki Sumizawa, Yong Zhou, Min Yao, Kenji Iwasaki, Masato Yoshimura, and Tomitake Tsukihara. 2009. “The Structure of Rat Liver Vault at 3.5 Angstrom Resolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323(5912):384–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, Donald A. 2005. Hazardous Materials Characterization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lambrakis, Nicolaos, George Stournaras, and Konstantina Katsanou, eds. 2011. Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment: Volume 2. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashlock, Daniel, Cameron McGuinness, and Wendy Ashlock. 2012. “Representation in Evolutionary Computation.” Pp. 77–97 in Advances in Computational Intelligence: IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, WCCI 2012, Brisbane, Australia, June 10-15, 2012. Plenary/Invited Lectures, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by J. Liu, C. Alippi, B. Bouchon-Meunier, G. W. Greenwood, and H. A. Abbass. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “Watch What Happens When You Put A Red-Hot Nickel Ball On Ice.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Contracts Awarded by the Social and Rehabilitation Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on a Noncompetitive Basis. B-164031(3). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal, Ektha. 2012. “South Asian Women’s Attitudes toward Help-Seeking Behaviors.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver, Nate. 2012. “The Weatherman Is Not a Moron.” New York Times, September 7, MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2002; Elmquist and Flier 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elmquist and Flier 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tsori, Tournilhac, and Leibler 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tanaka et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

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