How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucey, Paul G. 2013. “Planetary Science. A Wet and Volatile Mercury.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339(6117):282–83.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, Nick G. C., and Adam Eyre-Walker. 2002. “Adaptive Protein Evolution in Drosophila.” Nature 415(6875):1022–24.
A journal article with 3 authors
Majumdar, Sharmistha, Anita Singh, and Donald C. Rio. 2013. “The Human THAP9 Gene Encodes an Active P-Element DNA Transposase.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339(6118):446–48.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lim, Janghoo, Juan Crespo-Barreto, Paymaan Jafar-Nejad, Aaron B. Bowman, Ronald Richman, David E. Hill, Harry T. Orr, and Huda Y. Zoghbi. 2008. “Opposing Effects of Polyglutamine Expansion on Native Protein Complexes Contribute to SCA1.” Nature 452(7188):713–18.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullard, Brittany. 2016. Style and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
FitzGerald, Duncan M., and Jasper Knight, eds. 2005. High Resolution Morphodynamics and Sedimentary Evolution of Estuaries. Vol. 8. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Gong, Zaiwu, Yi Lin, and Tianxiang Yao. 2013. “Two-Tuple Linguistic Preference Relations.” Pp. 75–91 in Uncertain Fuzzy Preference Relations and Their Applications, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, edited by Y. Lin and T. Yao. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Are You A Psychopath? Take This Test To Find Out.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. FWS: Migratory Bird Hunting--Late Seasons and Bag Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds. OGC-99-19. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco, Rosaevelia. 2010. “Latinas Attainment of Higher Education: What Factors Contribute to Their Success?” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. “A Vanished Woman’s Strange Return.” New York Times, December 16, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucey 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lucey 2013; Smith and Eyre-Walker 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Eyre-Walker 2002)
  • Three authors: (Majumdar, Singh, and Rio 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lim et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles