How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nath, Indira. 2008. “Obituary: Christopher Curtis (1939-2008).” Nature 453(7198):1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cahoon, Laty A. and H. Steven Seifert. 2009. “An Alternative DNA Structure Is Necessary for Pilin Antigenic Variation in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325(5941):764–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann, Elisabeth, Florian Brueckner, and Patrick Cramer. 2007. “Molecular Basis of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II Activity.” Nature 450(7168):445–49.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, Young-Soo, Yoon-Gyo Cho, Dorj Odkhuu, Noejung Park, and Hyun-Kon Song. 2013. “A Physical Organogel Electrolyte: Characterized by in Situ Thermo-Irreversible Gelation and Single-Ion-Predominent Conduction.” Scientific Reports 3:1917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, David F. 2013. Foreign Exchange Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, Fei, Dinggang Shen, Pingkun Yan, and Kenji Suzuki, eds. 2012. Machine Learning in Medical Imaging: Third International Workshop, MLMI 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 1, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7588. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Radomirović, Saša and Mohammad Torabi Dashti. 2015. “Derailing Attacks.” Pp. 41–46 in Security Protocols XXIII: 23rd International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 31 - April 2, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by B. Christianson, P. Švenda, V. Matyáš, J. Malcolm, F. Stajano, and J. Anderson. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Athletes Play Sports Better When Reminded They’re Going To Die One Day.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Library Services for Those with Disabilities: Additional Steps Needed to Ease Access to Services and Modernize Technology. GAO-16-355. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horning, Christy L. 2017. “Kinesthetic Learning in Algebra and Its Effects on Students’ Achievement and Disposition toward Mathemathics.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schonbrun, Zach. 2013. “A Dimmed Marquee.” New York Times, July 2, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nath 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cahoon and Seifert 2009; Nath 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cahoon and Seifert 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lehmann, Brueckner, and Cramer 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

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