How to format your references using the Teaching Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quay, Paul. 2002. “Climate Change. Ups and Downs of CO2 Uptake.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298(5602):2344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murphy, John J., and Paolo Melchiorre. 2015. “Organic Chemistry: Light Opens Pathways for Nickel Catalysis.” Nature 524(7565):297–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runyon, Justin B., Mark C. Mescher, and Consuelo M. De Moraes. 2006. “Volatile Chemical Cues Guide Host Location and Host Selection by Parasitic Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5795):1964–67.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Knott, Simon R. V., Elvin Wagenblast, Showkhin Khan, Sun Y. Kim, Mar Soto, Michel Wagner, Marc-Olivier Turgeon, Lisa Fish, Nicolas Erard, Annika L. Gable, Ashley R. Maceli, Steffen Dickopf, Evangelia K. Papachristou, Clive S. D’Santos, Lisa A. Carey, John E. Wilkinson, J. Chuck Harrell, Charles M. Perou, Hani Goodarzi, George Poulogiannis, and Gregory J. Hannon. 2018. “Erratum: Asparagine Bioavailability Governs Metastasis in a Model of Breast Cancer.” Nature 556(7699):135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenholm, Stig, and Kalle-Antti Suominen. 2005. Quantum Approach to Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gimpel, Henner, Nicholas R. Jennings, Gregory E. Kersten, Axel Ockenfels, and Christof Weinhardt, eds. 2008. Negotiation, Auctions, and Market Engineering: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 12-17, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Battaglia, E., and S. Amaducci. 2005. “Systems for Oxygen Delivery.” Pp. 43–57 in Home Long-Term Oxygen Treatment in Italy: The Additional Value of Telemedicine, edited by R. W. D. Negro and A. I. Goldberg. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Sociology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Breakthrough In Search For Life As Seven Earth-Sized Worlds Found Orbiting Nearby Star.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Broadcasting Board of Governors: Additional Steps Needed to Address Overlap in International Broadcasting. GAO-13-172. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyer-Barrett, Joan M. 2017. “Exercising Their Privilege to Borrow: A Demonstrated Understanding of the Obligation of Student Loans in a Community College.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell, Julie, and Louise Story. 2011. “On All Levels of the Economy, Concern About the Impasse: Losing Top Rating Could Cost Growth And Job Creation.” New York Times, July 27, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quay 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Murphy and Melchiorre 2015; Quay 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murphy and Melchiorre 2015)
  • Three authors: (Runyon, Mescher, and De Moraes 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Knott et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Sociology
AbbreviationTeach. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0092-055X
Sociology and Political Science

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