How to format your references using the Marine Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker DF (2007) Climate change. Reassessing carbon sinks. Science 316:1708–1709
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown MS, Goldstein JL (2006) Biomedicine. Lowering LDL--not only how low, but how long? Science 311:1721–1723
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden JF, Svenning JC, Wright SJ (2002) Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science 295:636–637
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gosgnach S, Lanuza GM, Butt SJB, et al (2006) V1 spinal neurons regulate the speed of vertebrate locomotor outputs. Nature 440:215–219

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H (2010) Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Landry E, Rickles D (eds) (2012) Structural Realism: Structure, Object, and Causality. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Christen P, Vatsalan D, Fu Z (2015) Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies. In: Bloothooft G, Christen P, Mandemakers K, Schraagen M (eds) Population Reconstruction. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 87–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Biodiversity.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) The Black Dragons of the Sea. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Status of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trantham LC (2012) PSA surveillance following radical prostatectomy: What we know and why it matters. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM, Vlasic B (2016) Volvo Makes Comeback With Return to Its Values. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brown and Goldstein 2006; Baker 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Goldstein 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gosgnach et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Biodiversity
AbbreviationMar. Biodivers.
ISSN (print)1867-1616
ISSN (online)1867-1624
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles