How to format your references using the Marine Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinge V (2006) 2020 computing: the creativity machine. Nature 440:411
A journal article with 2 authors
Gollisch T, Meister M (2008) Rapid neural coding in the retina with relative spike latencies. Science 319:1108–1111
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheung WWL, Watson R, Pauly D (2013) Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365–368
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Maida Y, Yasukawa M, Furuuchi M, et al (2009) An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase formed by TERT and the RMRP RNA. Nature 461:230–235

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young S, Smith J (2017) Helping Children with ADHD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wüthrich MV (2013) Financial Modeling, Actuarial Valuation and Solvency in Insurance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Saito J-T, Chaslot G, Uiterwijk JWHM, van den Herik HJ (2007) Monte-Carlo Proof-Number Search for Computer Go. In: Herik HJ van D, Ciancarini P, Donkers HHLM (jeroen) (eds) Computers and Games: 5th International Conference, CG 2006, Turin, Italy, May 29-31, 2006. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 50–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Biodiversity.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Both Wolves And Dogs Stop Cooperating If They Know They’ve Been Cheated. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Job Corps: High Costs and Mixed Results Raise Questions About Program’s Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeVito MA (2015) Facebook Family Values: A News Feed Hierarchy Of Needs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R (2015) Woman Is Fatally Shot Outside a Club. New York Times A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vinge 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Vinge 2006; Gollisch and Meister 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gollisch and Meister 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Maida et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Biodiversity
AbbreviationMar. Biodivers.
ISSN (print)1867-1616
ISSN (online)1867-1624
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles