How to format your references using the Marine Biodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Biodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schon G (2000) Superconducting nanowires. Nature 404:948–949
A journal article with 2 authors
Maechler P, Wollheim CB (2001) Mitochondrial function in normal and diabetic beta-cells. Nature 414:807–812
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen L, Ratcliffe JM, Surlykke A (2013) Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature 493:93–96
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhou Y, Yao Y, Chen C-Y, et al (2014) The use of polyimide-modified aluminum nitride fillers in AlN@PI/epoxy composites with enhanced thermal conductivity for electronic encapsulation. Sci Rep 4:4779

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni L, Perdomo I (2013) Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Férard J-F, Blaise C (eds) (2013) Encyclopedia of Aquatic Ecotoxicology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kim J, Mochly-Rosen D (2010) Regulation of PKC by Protein–Protein Interactions in Cancer. In: Kazanietz MG (ed) Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 79–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Biodiversity.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) This Area’s Inhabitants Speak More Languages Than Anywhere Else On Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) NextGen Air Transportation System: FAA’s Metrics Can Be Used to Report on Status of Individual Programs, but Not of Overall NextGen Implementation or Outcomes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verret JE (2019) Property Tax Limitations, School District Revenues, and Equity: Analyses of Pennsylvania’s Act One. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) Scripted TV Shows Balloon, but Some Fear a Pop. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schon 2000; Maechler and Wollheim 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maechler and Wollheim 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Biodiversity
AbbreviationMar. Biodivers.
ISSN (print)1867-1616
ISSN (online)1867-1624
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles