How to format your references using the Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long, T.E. Materials science. Toward recyclable thermosets. Science 2014, 344, 706–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Malakoff, D.; Cho, A. MILITARY RESEARCH: Researchers Target Flaws in Ballistic Missile Defense Plan. Science 2000, 288, 1940–1941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirichok, Y.; Navarro, B.; Clapham, D.E. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of spermatozoa reveal an alkaline-activated Ca2+ channel. Nature 2006, 439, 737–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
González-José, R.; Escapa, I.; Neves, W.A.; Cúneo, R.; Pucciarelli, H.M. Cladistic analysis of continuous modularized traits provides phylogenetic signals in Homo evolution. Nature 2008, 453, 775–778.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford, R. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118153321.
An edited book
The SAGES Manual: A Practical Guide to Bariatric Surgery; Nguyen, N.T., Maria, E.J.D., Ikramuddin, S., Hutter, M.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2008; ISBN 9780387691701.
A chapter in an edited book
Biollay, Y.; Chaabouni, A.; Stubbe, J. Funzioni. In Matematica si parte!: Nozioni di base ed esercizi per il primo anno di Ingegneria; Chaabouni, A., Stubbe, J., Quarteroni, A., Eds.; UNITEXT; Springer: Milano, 2007; pp. 67–77 ISBN 9788847006751.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Beetle Uses ‘Switchable Reflector’ To Change From Gold to Red Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (GAO-09-867SP, September 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-868; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, E.M. Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Panel Hears Complaints On Pensions At Delphi. New York Times 2011, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics
ISSN (online)2304-6732

Other styles