How to format your references using the Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonhardt, U. Applied Physics: Cloaking of Heat. Nature 2013, 498, 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.W.; Baran, P.S. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. As Simple as [2+2]. Science 2015, 349, 925–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, J.-Y.; Wu, X.-S.; Wu, L.-G. Single and Multiple Vesicle Fusion Induce Different Rates of Endocytosis at a Central Synapse. Nature 2002, 417, 555–559.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schmidt, D.N.; Thierstein, H.R.; Bollmann, J.; Schiebel, R. Abiotic Forcing of Plankton Evolution in the Cenozoic. Science 2004, 303, 207–210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinyer, A. Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118702918.
An edited book
Experimental and Efficient Algorithms: 4th International Workshop, WEA 2005, Santorini Island, Greece, May 10-13, 2005. Proceedings; Nikoletseas, S.E., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3503; ISBN 9783540259206.
A chapter in an edited book
Nziali, E.; Fayolle, A. Early-Stage Businesses, Resource Inheritance, and Coworkers Hiring: The Moderating Role of Founder’s Human Capital. In Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth; Baptista, R., Leitão, J., Eds.; International Studies in Entrepreneurship; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 75–91 ISBN 9783319128702.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Grow Miniature Beating Hearts In The Lab (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Natural Gas Regulation: Pipeline Transportation Under FERC Order 436; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quackenbush, C.M. The Imaginal Stone: Stories of Self and World. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Viceroy’s House. New York Times 2017, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics
ISSN (online)2304-6732

Other styles