How to format your references using the Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. Clinical trials: More trials, fewer tribulations. Nature 2014, 509, S55-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirwan, M.L.; Megonigal, J.P. Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 2013, 504, 53–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, Q.; Krug, R.M.; Tao, Y.J. The mechanism by which influenza A virus nucleoprotein forms oligomers and binds RNA. Nature 2006, 444, 1078–1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yabuki, A.; Kamikawa, R.; Ishikawa, S.A.; Kolisko, M.; Kim, E.; Tanabe, A.S.; Kume, K.; Ishida, K.-I.; Inagki, Y. Palpitomonas bilix represents a basal cryptist lineage: insight into the character evolution in Cryptista. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger, M.; Binder, A. A Workout in Computational Finance; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781119973515.
An edited book
Programming for Peace: Computer-Aided Methods for International Conflict Resolution and Prevention; Trappl, R., Ed.; Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; Vol. 2; ISBN 9781402043772.
A chapter in an edited book
Trautschold, M.; Mazo, G. Windows PC Media and File Transfer. In BlackBerry Curve Made Simple: For the BlackBerry Curve 8520, 8530 and 8500 Series; Mazo, G., Anglin, S., Markham, J., Andres, C., Beckner, M., Buckingham, E., Cornell, G., Gennick, J., Hassell, J., Lowman, M., Moodie, M., Parkes, D., Pepper, J., Pohlmann, F., Pundick, D., Renow-Clarke, B., Shakeshaft, D., Wade, M., Welsh, T., Becker, L., Fugate, M.A., Marcheso, C., Meador, P., Moore, R., Stence, K., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2010; pp. 105–124 ISBN 9781430231233.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. How To Prepare For A Tsunami Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on Proposed Changes to DAR Cost Principles and Internal Procedures]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collinsworth, B.M. Hospital to housing: A grant proposal for specialized discharge planning services for people who are homeless. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M. The High Price of Pretty Nails. New York Times 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotonics
ISSN (online)2304-6732

Other styles