How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Williams, Quentin. 2014. “Geophysics. Deep Mantle Matters.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6186): 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnaoutov, Alexei, and Mary Dasso. 2014. “Enzyme Regulation. IRBIT Is a Novel Regulator of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Higher Eukaryotes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6203): 1512–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bewley, Gregory P., Daniel P. Lathrop, and Katepalli R. Sreenivasan. 2006. “Superfluid Helium: Visualization of Quantized Vortices.” Nature 441 (7093): 588.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huang, Wendong, Ke Ma, Jun Zhang, Mohammed Qatanani, James Cuvillier, Jun Liu, Bingning Dong, Xiongfei Huang, and David D. Moore. 2006. “Nuclear Receptor-Dependent Bile Acid Signaling Is Required for Normal Liver Regeneration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5771): 233–236.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schütz, Holger, Peter M. Wiedemann, Wilfried Hennings, Johannes Mertens, and Martin Clauberg. 2006. Comparative Risk Assessment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Krüger, Jörg, Bertram Nickolay, and Sandro Gaycken, eds. 2013. The Secure Information Society: Ethical, Legal and Political Challenges. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thorsos, Nilsa, B. Gloria Guzmán Johannessen, Makini Beck, and Christine Nganga. 2016. “Synergy, Care, and Constructive Chaos: Conceptualizing the Dynamics of an International Global Co-Mentoring Network.” In Global Co-Mentoring Networks in Higher Education: Politics, Policies, and Practices, edited by B. Gloria Guzmán Johannessen, 57–71. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “The Winners Of The Wildlife Photographer Of The Year Awards Are Absolutely Spectacular.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Rehabilitation Services: Administration of Grants to Human Services Training and Research Council. HRD-86-51FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bentley, Kate J. 2016. “Modern Public Market to Revitalize a Small Community.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Two Asian-American Actors in ‘Hawaii Five-0’ Depart.” New York Times, July 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Williams 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Williams 2014; Arnaoutov and Dasso 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arnaoutov and Dasso 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bewley, Lathrop, and Sreenivasan 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

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