How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. 2000. “Art Imitating High-Energy Physics.” Nature 404 (6775): 219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leibfarth, Frank A., and Craig J. Hawker. 2011. “Chemistry. Mechanically Throwing a Reaction into Reverse.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6049): 1582–1583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy, David, Richard R. Jones, and Robert E. Holdsworth. 2006. “Three-Dimensional Brittle Shear Fracturing by Tensile Crack Interaction.” Nature 439 (7072): 64–67.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hoyt, Joseph R., Kate E. Langwig, J. Paul White, Heather M. Kaarakka, Jennifer A. Redell, Allen Kurta, John E. DePue, et al. 2018. “Cryptic Connections Illuminate Pathogen Transmission within Community Networks.” Nature, November.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin, Stephen. 2010. Dictionary of Scientific Principles. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Selin, Helaine, ed. 2014. Parenting Across Cultures: Childrearing, Motherhood and Fatherhood in Non-Western Cultures. Vol. 7. Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Richard, Jocelyn, Jean-Marc Robert, Sébastien Malo, and Joël Migneault. 2011. “Giving UI Developers the Power of UI Design Patterns.” In Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting with Information: Symposium on Human Interface 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Michael J. Smith and Gavriel Salvendy, 40–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Being Naked Is Great For Your Body Image And Satisfaction With Life.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known. GGD-78-20. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Funderburk, James. 2010. “Modern Variation in Predation Intensity: Constraints on Assessing Predator-Prey Relationships in Paleoecologic Reconstructions.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Ball That Seems Innocuous Closes Door on a Mets Rally.” New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2000; Leibfarth and Hawker 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leibfarth and Hawker 2011)
  • Three authors: (Healy, Jones, and Holdsworth 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hoyt et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

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