How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, David. 2004. “Will Creativity Thrive in an Island Paradise?” Nature 429 (6988): 220–221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bardgett, Richard D., and Wim H. van der Putten. 2014. “Belowground Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning.” Nature 515 (7528): 505–511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, Meisheng, Ni Hong, and Yunhan Hong. 2009. “Generation of Medaka Fish Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5951): 430–433.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Pu, Marta C. González, César A. Hidalgo, and Albert-László Barabási. 2009. “Understanding the Spreading Patterns of Mobile Phone Viruses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5930): 1071–1076.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bell, Michael. 2016. Incremental Software Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Masson, Antoine, and Mary J. Shariff, eds. 2009. Legal Strategies: How Corporations Use Law to Improve Performance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Futer, David, Efstratia Kalfagianni, and Jessica Purcell. 2013. “Guts and Fibers.” In Guts of Surfaces and the Colored Jones Polynomial, edited by Efstratia Kalfagianni and Jessica Purcell, 73–90. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “How Cooperative Behaviour Could Make Artificial Intelligence More Human.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Space Station: Status of Russian Involvement and Cost Control Efforts. T-NSIAD-99-117. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmisseur, Brooke E. 2002. “An Evaluation of Noise Reduction Effectiveness in Four Digital Hearing Aids.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, Ellen. 2010. “Attacks Revive Russian Concern That Guerrilla Warfare Will Spread.” New York Times, March 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2004; Bardgett and van der Putten 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bardgett and van der Putten 2014)
  • Three authors: (Yi, Hong, and Hong 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

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