How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, Jim. 2002. “Diplomats near Pact in Simmering Debate over Transgenic Foods.” Nature 416 (6878): 252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mondal, N., and J. D. Parvin. 2001. “DNA Topoisomerase IIalpha Is Required for RNA Polymerase II Transcription on Chromatin Templates.” Nature 413 (6854): 435–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, Megan C., C. Patrick Lusk, and Günter Blobel. 2006. “Karyopherin-Mediated Import of Integral Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins.” Nature 442 (7106): 1003–1007.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jones, Julia C., Mary R. Myerscough, Sonia Graham, and Benjamin P. Oldroyd. 2004. “Honey Bee Nest Thermoregulation: Diversity Promotes Stability.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5682): 402–404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Wei, Ilya Shmulevich, and Jaakko Astola. 2005. Microarray Quality Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hoyles, Celia, and Jean-Baptiste Lagrange, eds. 2010. Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain: The 17th ICMI Study. Vol. 13. New ICMI Study Series. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Boskou, Stamatia, and Kjell Engelbrekt. 2016. “Keeping a Low Profile: Greek Strategic Culture and International Military Operations.” In European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture, edited by Malena Britz, 77–99. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “The Uphill Battle For The Philae Mission.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983. OGC-83-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, Eliot M. 2012. “Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2016. “Juilliard’s Fast Takes on French Baroque.” New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Giles 2002; Mondal and Parvin 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mondal and Parvin 2001)
  • Three authors: (King, Lusk, and Blobel 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jones et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

Other styles