How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tully, John C. 2006. “Chemistry. Mode-Selective Control of Surface Reactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5776): 1004–1005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinhardt, Paul J., and Neil Turok. 2006. “Why the Cosmological Constant Is Small and Positive.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5777): 1180–1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maiorano, D., J. Moreau, and M. Méchali. 2000. “XCDT1 Is Required for the Assembly of Pre-Replicative Complexes in Xenopus Laevis.” Nature 404 (6778): 622–625.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tilman, D., J. Fargione, B. Wolff, C. D’Antonio, A. Dobson, R. Howarth, D. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, D. Simberloff, and D. Swackhamer. 2001. “Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5515): 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Hui, and Guoqing Li. 2006. OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sciammarella, Cesar, John Considine, and Paul Gloeckner, eds. 2016. Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. 1st ed. 2016. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schweingruber, Fritz Hans, Annett Börner, and Ernst-Detlef Schulze. 2013. “Ontogeny of the Xylem.” In Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees: Volume 2, edited by Annett Börner and Ernst-Detlef Schulze, 371–381. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “This Eerie Footage Appears To Show The Earth BREATHING.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Civilian Agencies’ Management and Use of Aircraft. T-GGD-88-15. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borisova-Kidder, Ayuna. 2006. “Meta-Analytical Estimates of Values of Environmental Services Enhanced by Government Agricultural Conservation Programs.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “A Tough Hill to Climb, but Not Impossible.” New York Times, October 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tully 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Tully 2006; Steinhardt and Turok 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinhardt and Turok 2006)
  • Three authors: (Maiorano, Moreau, and Méchali 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tilman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

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