How to format your references using the Teaching in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spaldin, Nicola. 2015. “Find Your Most Interesting Question.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6243): 110.
A journal article with 2 authors
Digicaylioglu, M., and S. A. Lipton. 2001. “Erythropoietin-Mediated Neuroprotection Involves Cross-Talk between Jak2 and NF-KappaB Signalling Cascades.” Nature 412 (6847): 641–647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Courtial, J., J. Leach, and M. J. Padgett. 2001. “Fractals in Pixellated Video Feedback.” Nature 414 (6866): 864.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Robinson, Laura F., Jess F. Adkins, Lloyd D. Keigwin, John Southon, Diego P. Fernandez, S-L Wang, and Daniel S. Scheirer. 2005. “Radiocarbon Variability in the Western North Atlantic during the Last Deglaciation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5753): 1469–1473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hu, Weiduo. 2015. Fundamental Spacecraft Dynamics and Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Findeisen, Rolf, Frank Allgöwer, and Lorenz T. Biegler, eds. 2007. Assessment and Future Directions of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control. Vol. 358. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bradshaw, Heather B. 2008. “Other Cannabimimetic Lipid Signaling Molecules.” In Cannabinoids and the Brain, edited by Attila Köfalvi, 47–58. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “‘There’s a Problem With My What?’: How Genes Get Their Names.” IFLScience. IFLScience.“there’s-problem-my-what”-how-genes-get-their-names/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. GAO-17-589T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekstrom, John Emmett. 2009. “Factors Influencing Retention in a Residential Treatment Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2000. “Missed Opportunities Are the Liberty’s Downfall.” New York Times, August 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spaldin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Spaldin 2015; Digicaylioglu and Lipton 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Digicaylioglu and Lipton 2001)
  • Three authors: (Courtial, Leach, and Padgett 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Robinson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching in Higher Education
AbbreviationTeach. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1356-2517
ISSN (online)1470-1294

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