How to format your references using the Journal of Tropical Life Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tropical Life Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sakmar TP (2012) Biochemistry. Redder than red. Science (New York, NY) 338 (6112): 1299–1300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons SF, Brown KL (2006) Gold in magmatic hydrothermal solutions and the rapid formation of a giant ore deposit. Science (New York, NY) 314 (5797): 288–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hannon JB, Tersoff J, Tromp RM (2002) Surface stress and thermodynamic nanoscale size selection. Science (New York, NY) 295 (5553): 299–301.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Glur L, Wirth SB, Büntgen U et al. (2013) Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years. Scientific reports 3 2770.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harper C (2005) Analytic Methods in Physics. Weinheim, FRG, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Knust M, Hanft A (2009) Continuing Higher Education and Lifelong Learning: An international comparative study on structures, organisation and provisions. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Prokou E (2010) University Reform in Greece: A Shift from Intrinsic to Extrinsic Values. In: Mattheou D ed Changing Educational Landscapes: Educational Policies, Schooling Systems and Higher Education - a comparative perspective. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands. pp 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tropical Life Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Bald Eagles Make A Comeback. (2015)Accessed: October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Electronic Government: Better Information Needed on Agencies’ Implementation of the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piekielek JA (2009) Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Goldman A, Mazzetti M (2017) F.B.I. Warned G.O.P. Congressman Russian Spies Were Recruiting Him. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tropical Life Science
AbbreviationJ. Trop. Life Sci.
ISSN (print)2087-5517
ISSN (online)2527-4376

Other styles