How to format your references using the Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife C. ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices. Science. 2000;290(5491):427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Swinbanks D, Cyranoski D. Taiwan backs experience in quest for biotech success. Nature. 2000;407(6802):417-426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai J, Virovets AV, Scheer M. Synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like molecules. Science. 2003;300(5620):781-783.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Niikura H, Légaré F, Hasbani R, Ivanov MY, Villeneuve DM, Corkum PB. Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs. Nature. 2003;421(6925):826-829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Siebert G, Maniatis I. Tragende Bauteile Aus Glas. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Paoli L. The Sports Doping Market: Understanding Supply and Demand, and the Challenges of Their Control. (Donati A, ed.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Koehl M, Le Moal M, Abrous DN. Stress Disorders. In: Seki T, Sawamoto K, Parent JM, Alvarez-Buylla A, eds. Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II: Clinical Implications. Springer Japan; 2011:53-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Extremely Rare Siamese Lizard Twins Found In German Zoo. IFLScience. Published February 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Overseas Schools: Additional Assurances of Educational Quality Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson MS. Integrating Emergency Medical Services Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Trump Twitter Quarrel With Michael Moore. New York Times. October 29, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTaiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationTaiwan J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)2211-5056

Other styles