How to format your references using the Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Forcing the market. Nature. 2003;426(6967):735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liechti R, Farmer EE. The jasmonate pathway. Science. 2002;296(5573):1649-1650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wild K, Sinning I, Cusack S. Crystal structure of an early protein-RNA assembly complex of the signal recognition particle. Science. 2001;294(5542):598-601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu HP, Lai YC, Huang SW, Chen HC, Hsieh CH, Yu HT. Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen E, Ellis R, S. Pujar N. Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Li X. Graph Energy. (Shi Y, Gutman I, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Illies C. New Debates in Old Ethical Skins. In: Engelhard M, ed. Synthetic Biology Analysed: Tools for Discussion and Evaluation. Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment. Springer International Publishing; 2016:89-125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Should British Universities Worry About A Lack Of Nobel Prizes In The 21st Century? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Agricultural Research and Development and Extension Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron M. Prescripton Labels: Do You Know What Medication You Are Taking? Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley S. New York Attorney General Opens Inquiry on Student Debt. New York Times. July 19, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTaiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationTaiwan J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)2211-5056

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