How to format your references using the Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strober W. Immunology. Unraveling gut inflammation. Science. 2006;313(5790):1052-1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frisch RL, Rosenberg SM. Microbiology. Antibiotic resistance, not shaken or stirred. Science. 2011;333(6050):1713-1714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabanov AA, Stoytchev M, Genack AZ. Statistical signatures of photon localization. Nature. 2000;404(6780):850-853.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sano N, Wang H, Chhowalla M, Alexandrou I, Amaratunga GA. Synthesis of carbon “onions” in water. Nature. 2001;414(6863):506-507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton I. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Fiedler M. Linear Optimization Problems with Inexact Data. (Nedoma J, Ramík J, Rohn J, Zimmermann K, eds.). Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Segredo E, Segura C, León C. On the Comparison of Parallel Island-Based Models for the Multiobjectivised Antenna Positioning Problem. In: König A, Dengel A, Hinkelmann K, Kise K, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, eds. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 15th International Conference, KES 2011, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 12-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:32-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dancing Dwarf Galaxies Mystify Astronomers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Accessible Communications: FCC Should Evaluate the Effectiveness of Its Public Outreach Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moyer AS. The A+ Schools Program and School Improvement. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson L. Christians and Muslims. New York Times. August 22, 2010:BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTaiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationTaiwan J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)2211-5056

Other styles