How to format your references using the Underground Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Underground Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strogatz, S. H. (2001). Exploring complex networks. Nature, 410(6825), 268–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, G., & Goeddel, D. V. (2002). TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Couch, S., Sparks, R. S., & Carroll, M. R. (2001). Mineral disequilibrium in lavas explained by convective self-mixing in open magma chambers. Nature, 411(6841), 1037–1039.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sweere, U., Eichenberg, K., Lohrmann, J., Mira-Rodado, V., Bäurle, I., Kudla, J., … Harter, K. (2001). Interaction of the response regulator ARR4 with phytochrome B in modulating red light signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5544), 1108–1111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dewulf, G., Blanken, A., & Bult-Spiering, M. (2012). Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Velásquez, J. D., Ríos, S. A., Howlett, R. J., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.). (2009). Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 13th International Conference, KES 2009, Santiago, Chile, September 28-30, 2009, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 5712). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Campi, A., Ceri, S., Maesani, A., & Ronchi, S. (2010). Designing Service Marts for Engineering Search Computing Applications. In B. Benatallah, F. Casati, G. Kappel, & G. Rossi (Eds.), Web Engineering: 10th International Conference, ICWE 2010, Vienna Austria, July 5-9, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 50–65). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Underground Space.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 20). NASA To Announce A Huge Discovery Outside The Solar System This Wednesday. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Highlights of a GAO Forum: The Federal Government’s Role in Improving Financial Literacy (No. GAO-05-93SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullett, D. L. (2017). Lived Experience of Suffering through the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaufman, M. T. (2017, September 20). Lillian Ross Dies at 99; A New Yorker Reporter Whose Memoir Rankled. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strogatz, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Chen & Goeddel, 2002; Strogatz, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Goeddel, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Couch, Sparks, & Carroll, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sweere et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleUnderground Space
ISSN (print)2467-9674

Other styles