How to format your references using the Underground Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Underground Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks, R. (2001). The relationship between matter and life. Nature, 409(6818), 409–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhao, M., & Running, S. W. (2010). Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5994), 940–943.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarduno, J. A., Cottrell, R. D., & Smirnov, A. V. (2001). High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5509), 1779–1783.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kafsack, B. F. C., Pena, J. D. O., Coppens, I., Ravindran, S., Boothroyd, J. C., & Carruthers, V. B. (2009). Rapid membrane disruption by a perforin-like protein facilitates parasite exit from host cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 530–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anstädt, T., Keller, I., & Lutz, H. (2010). Intelligente Videoanalyse. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gutiérrez, F., & Gutiérrez, M. (Eds.). (2014). Landscapes and Landforms of Spain. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards, L. M., & McClintock, J. B. (2013). Promoting Hope Among Youth: Theory, Research, and Practice. In C. Proctor & P. A. Linley (Eds.), Research, Applications, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Perspective (pp. 43–55). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Underground Space.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, June 18). Sneaky Bachelors Could Help Save Endangered Hihi Birds. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Vehicle Safety Inspections: Improved DOT Communication Could Better Inform State Programs (GAO-15-705). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, J. R. (2017). A Risk Analysis of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain Using Bayesian Networks [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2017, May 3). A Creative Enclave That Welcomes the Eclectic. New York Times, RE13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooks, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brooks, 2001; Zhao & Running, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhao & Running, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Tarduno et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kafsack et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleUnderground Space
ISSN (print)2467-9674

Other styles