How to format your references using the Underground Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Underground Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaser, H.-U. (2006). Chemistry. A golden boost to an old reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 312–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casavecchia, P., & Alexander, M. H. (2013). Chemistry. Uncloaking the quantum nature of inelastic molecular collisions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6150), 1076–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A., Wang, S., & Pacala, S. W. (2012). Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lallement, R., Quémerais, E., Bertaux, J. L., Ferron, S., Koutroumpa, D., & Pellinen, R. (2005). Deflection of the interstellar neutral hydrogen flow across the heliospheric interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1447–1449.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zigangirov, K. S. (2004). Theory of Code Division Multiple Access Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cachin, C. (2011). Introduction to Reliable and Secure Distributed Programming (R. Guerraoui & L. Rodrigues, Eds.; 2nd ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Warrier, S. B., & Kharkar, P. S. (2016). Inverse Virtual Screening in Drug Repositioning: Detailed Investigation and Case Studies. In P. Ramasami, M. Gupta Bhowon, S. Jhaumeer Laulloo, & H. Li Kam Wah (Eds.), Crystallizing Ideas – The Role of Chemistry (pp. 71–83). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Underground Space.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 24). Pulsar Knocks Out Its Companion Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts (HEHS-96-3). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper, E. A. (2009). Missouri elementary teacher certification programs and the education provided on how boys and girls learn differently [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 16). Suit Change Does Not Matter As U.S. Misses Podium Again. New York Times, SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaser, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blaser, 2006; Casavecchia & Alexander, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casavecchia & Alexander, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lallement et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleUnderground Space
ISSN (print)2467-9674

Other styles