How to format your references using the Underground Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Underground Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKinney, J. C. (2012). Astronomy. Probing black hole gravity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6097), 916–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Izawa, D., & Pines, J. (2015). The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C. Nature, 517(7536), 631–634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conroy, C., van Dokkum, P. G., & Choi, J. (2015). Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations. Nature, 527(7579), 488–491.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, W. P., Li, Q., Xiong, Y. Q., Zhang, Q. M., Wang, D. H., Cao, Q. Q., Lv, L. Y., & Du, Y. W. (2014). Electric field manipulation of magnetic and transport properties in SrRuO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure. Scientific Reports, 4, 6991.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lev, B., & Gu, F. (2016). The End of Accounting and the Path Forward for Investors and Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Witzany, G. (Ed.). (2011). Biocommunication in Soil Microorganisms (Vol. 23). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, J. (2013). Emotional Sensations and the Moral Imagination in Malebranche. In H. M. Lloyd (Ed.), The Discourse of Sensibility: The Knowing Body in the Enlightenment (pp. 63–83). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Underground Space.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, August 1). “Remarkable” Results Show Ebola Vaccine Trial Provides 100% Protection. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Information Technology: DHS Needs to Improve Its Independent Acquisition Reviews (GAO-11-581). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fertig, B. M. (2010). Stable nitrogen isotopes (delta-nitrogen-15) in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) as an indicator of nitrogen source [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pear, R., & Pilon, M. (2013, January 5). Auto Racetrack Owners Keep Coveted Tax Break. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKinney, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Izawa & Pines, 2015; McKinney, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Izawa & Pines, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Conroy et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleUnderground Space
ISSN (print)2467-9674

Other styles