How to format your references using the Underground Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Underground Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reipurth, B. (2013). George Herbig (1920-2013). Nature, 503(7477), 470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmorstein, R., & Simon, M. C. (2015). Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear. Nature, 524(7565), 298–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Di Matteo, T., Springel, V., & Hernquist, L. (2005). Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies. Nature, 433(7026), 604–607.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luguet, A., Graham Pearson, D., Nowell, G. M., Dreher, S. T., Coggon, J. A., Spetsius, Z. V., & Parman, S. W. (2008). Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic sulfides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5862), 453–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laheurte, J.-M., Ripoll, C., Paret, D., & Loussert, C. (2014). UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chu, L.-Y. (2013). Smart Hydrogel Functional Materials (R. Xie, X.-J. Ju, & W. Wang, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Llopis, E., Higueras, V., Belloch, E., & Vañó, M. (2010). Spine. In J. C. Vilanova (Ed.), Learning Musculoskeletal Imaging (pp. 89–110). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Underground Space.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 2). Stressed Out Snake Eats Itself. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). FACE Recognition Technology: FBI Should Better Ensure Privacy and Accuracy [Reissued on August 3, 2016] (GAO-16-267). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, D. M. (2017). Resilience in Physically Maltreated Adolescents: Interpersonally Related Protective Factors and Gender Differences [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2008, May 13). A Sisterhood Lays a Foundation in Football. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reipurth, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Marmorstein & Simon, 2015; Reipurth, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marmorstein & Simon, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Di Matteo et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Luguet et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleUnderground Space
ISSN (print)2467-9674

Other styles