How to format your references using the Systematic and Applied Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systematic and Applied Microbiology (SYAPM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joye, S.B. (2015) MARINE SCIENCE. Deepwater Horizon, 5 years on. Science 349(6248), 592–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hector, A., Bagchi, R. (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 448(7150), 188–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne, B.C., Voris, H.K., Ng, P.K.L. (2002) Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature 418(6894), 143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Duan, F., Wang, Y., Shen, C.-C., Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Wu, C.-C., Hu, H.-M., Kong, X., Liu, D., Zhao, K. (2014) Evidence for solar cycles in a late Holocene speleothem record from Dongge Cave, China. Sci. Rep. 4, 5159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stidwill, D., Fletcher, R. (2010) Normal Binocular Vision. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Bouganis, T., Venjakob, O. (2014) Iwasawa Theory 2012: State of the Art and Recent Advances. vol. 7, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Armitage, J. (2006) Bacterial Behavior. In: Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., Stackebrandt, E., (Eds.), The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 102–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systematic and Applied Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) NASA Wants to Send an Airplane to Mars. IFLScience. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991) ADP Procurement: Better Capacity Planning Needed at Agriculture’s National Finance Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B.P. (2014) An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017) Cespedes Displays Healthy Swing in Return, but Legs Are Rarely Tested. New York Times, SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSystematic and Applied Microbiology
AbbreviationSyst. Appl. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0723-2020
ISSN (online)1618-0984
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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