How to format your references using the Systematic and Applied Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systematic and Applied Microbiology (SYAPM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sykes, M.V. (2008) Planetary science. The planet debate continues. Science 319(5871), 1765.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, J., Novick, R.P. (2009) Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes. Science 323(5910), 139–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Vidal-Madjar, A., Désert, J.-M. (2008) The origin of hydrogen around HD 209458b. Nature 456(7219), E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Emerson, J., Silva, M., Moussa, O., Ryan, C., Laforest, M., Baugh, J., Cory, D.G., Laflamme, R. (2007) Symmetrized characterization of noisy quantum processes. Science 317(5846), 1893–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hirsch, F., Kemp, J., Ilkka, J. (2006) Mobile Web Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vianello, M., Hawkesworth, M. (2016) Gender and Power: Towards Equality and Democratic Governance. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhry, P., Zimmerman, A. (2013) The Demand for Counterfeit Trade: Consumer Complicity. In: Zimmerman, A., (Ed.), Protecting Your Intellectual Property Rights: Understanding the Role of Management, Governments, Consumers and Pirates, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 71–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systematic and Applied Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) Scientists Have Found The Source Of Emotional Resilience In The Brain. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996) Contracts Under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Machula, M. (2014) Understanding and Predicting Teachers’ Knowledge of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011) N.H.L. Is Playing on Its Home Ice. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSystematic and Applied Microbiology
AbbreviationSyst. Appl. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0723-2020
ISSN (online)1618-0984
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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