How to format your references using the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holness M. Geochemistry. How melted rock migrates. Science 2006; 314: 934–935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waters MR, Stafford TW Jr. Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Science 2007; 315: 1122–1126.
A journal article with 3 authors
Egholm DL, Knudsen MF, Sandiford M. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers. Nature 2013; 498: 475–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pereira HM, Leadley PW, Proença V, et al. Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science 2010; 330: 1496–1501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D. Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Jain LC, Lim CP (eds). Handbook on Decision Making: Vol 1: Techniques and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Xalabarder R. Google News and Copyright. In: Lopez-Tarruella A (ed) Google and the Law: Empirical Approaches to Legal Aspects of Knowledge-Economy Business Models. The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press, 2012, pp. 113–167.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Quest For The World’s Hottest Chilli. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns Would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System [Reissued on September 18, 2012]. GAO-12-981, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 14 September 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brister MH. Attitudes of agriscience teachers, counselors, administrators, and students toward selected agriscience programs in Mississippi. Doctoral Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Study to Help Coordinate Transportation Solutions. New York Times, 10 December 2006, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
AbbreviationEur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1474-5151
ISSN (online)1873-1953
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles