How to format your references using the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berjak P. Global voices of science. Protector of the seeds: seminal reflections from southern Africa. Science 2005; 307: 47–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfisterer AB, Schmid B. Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature 2002; 416: 84–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor DM, Tillery SIH, Schwartz AB. Direct cortical control of 3D neuroprosthetic devices. Science 2002; 296: 1829–1832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sakamoto N, Seto Y, Itoh S, et al. Remnants of the early solar system water enriched in heavy oxygen isotopes. Science 2007; 317: 231–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips JJ, Brantley W, Phillips PP. Project Management ROI. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Elarabi T. Real-Time Heterogeneous Video Transcoding for Low-Power Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Suardi M, Kurian M. Results-Based Financing and Its Potential Role in Advancing the Nexus Approach. In: Kurian M, Ardakanian R (eds) Governing the Nexus: Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.

Blog post
Davis J. One Hundred Years On: The Science Of The Somme. IFLScience, (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Federal Software Exchange Program: A Small Step in Improving Program Sharing. FGMSD-78-11, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 13 January 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis LV. Oxidation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Iron Phthalocyanine Thin Films. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In Hindsight; Texas-Size Failure. New York Times, 18 July 1992, p. 111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
AbbreviationEur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1474-5151
ISSN (online)1873-1953
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles