How to format your references using the European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pate BH. Chemistry. Taking the pulse of molecular rotational spectroscopy. Science 2011; 333: 947–948.
A journal article with 2 authors
Song T-RA, Simons M. Large trench-parallel gravity variations predict seismogenic behavior in subduction zones. Science 2003; 301: 630–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deng B, Zhang RQ, Shi XQ. New insight into the spin-conserving excitation of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicewarner-Pena SR, Freeman RG, Reiss BD, et al. Submicrometer metallic barcodes. Science 2001; 294: 137–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges RH Jr. Practical Field Robotics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Hughes G. Sjögren’s Syndrome in Clinical Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay B, Deepak F, Kim K-S. An Improvement in Performance of Input-Delay System Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface. In: Deepak F, Kim K-S (eds) Sliding Mode Control Using Novel Sliding Surfaces. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 65–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. Comment From Scientist’s Daughter Sparks Discovery Of Possible New Cancer Treatment. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Maritime Administration’s Evaluation of the End Products of Research and Development Contracts with Private, Profitmaking Firms. PSAD-78-4, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 27 January 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garibay O. Towards a hybrid approach to mariachi education - Bridging the gap between formal and informal transmission of musical culture. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. The Shopping Urge Can Hit Anytime. New York Times, 12 August 2010, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
AbbreviationEur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1474-5151
ISSN (online)1873-1953
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles