How to format your references using the Brain and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nilsson, L. (2014). Ph.D.s, come out of the closet! Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 706.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stocker, R., & Durham, W. M. (2009). Microbiology. Tumbling for stealth? Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5939), 400–402.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirk, P. D. W., Babtie, A. C., & Stumpf, M. P. H. (2015). SYSTEMS BIOLOGY. Systems biology (un)certainties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6259), 386–388.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yan, Y., Wang, L.-X., Ke, X., Van Tendeloo, G., Wu, X.-S., Yu, D.-P., & Liao, Z.-M. (2014). High-mobility Bi2Se3 nanoplates manifesting quantum oscillations of surface states in the sidewalls. Scientific Reports, 4, 3817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton, M. (2013). A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Faigel, D. O., & Kochman, M. L. (Eds.). (2006). Endoscopic Oncology: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Cancer Management. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Woodrow-Lafield, K. A. (2012). A Sociology of Official Unauthorized Statistics: Estimation or Guesstimation? In N. Hoque & D. A. Swanson (Eds.), Opportunities and Challenges for Applied Demography in the 21st Century (pp. 49–80). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 28). What Happens To A Dead Body In The Ocean? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by AIMD-10.1.19) (AIMD-10.1.19). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, S. M. (2017). The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008, June 7). Georgia Is Warned by Russia Against Plans to Join NATO. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nilsson, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nilsson, 2014; Stocker & Durham, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stocker & Durham, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Kirk et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Cognition
AbbreviationBrain Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-2626
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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