How to format your references using the Brain and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grünbaum, D. (2011). Ecology. Why did you Lévy? Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1514–1515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmottant, P., & Hilgenfeldt, S. (2003). Controlled vesicle deformation and lysis by single oscillating bubbles. Nature, 423(6936), 153–156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrier, K. L., Huppert, K. L., & Perron, J. T. (2013). Climatic control of bedrock river incision. Nature, 496(7444), 206–209.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
O’Dowd, C. D., Aalto, P., Hmeri, K., Kulmala, M., & Hoffmann, T. (2002). Aerosol formation: atmospheric particles from organic vapours. Nature, 416(6880), 497–498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazze, R. S., Strock, E. S., Bergenstal, R. M., Criego, A., Cuddihy, R., Langer, O., Simonson, G. D., & Powers, M. A. (2011). Staged Diabetes Management. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Montoya Sánchez de Pablo, J. (2016). How Green are Electric or Hydrogen-Powered Cars?: Assessing GHG Emissions of Traffic in Spain (M. Miravalles López & A. Bret, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Raz, A. E., & Schicktanz, S. (2016). Making Responsible Life Plans: Cultural Differences in Lay Attitudes in Germany and Israel Towards Predictive Genetic Testing for Late-Onset Diseases. In S. Schicktanz (Ed.), Comparative Empirical Bioethics: Dilemmas of Genetic Testing and Euthanasia in Israel and Germany (pp. 55–66). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 28). New Molecule That Mimics Exercise Could Help Treat Obesity and Diabetes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Space Station: Status of Financial Reserves (NSIAD-92-279). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, M. (2009). Utilizing the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) in a technology-based publishing program [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2014, October 15). Deal Is Said to Be Close in Detroit’s Bankruptcy. New York Times, A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grünbaum, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Grünbaum, 2011; Marmottant & Hilgenfeldt, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marmottant & Hilgenfeldt, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ferrier et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (O’Dowd et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Cognition
AbbreviationBrain Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-2626
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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