How to format your references using the Synthetic Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synthetic Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Irvine, Cell signaling. The art of the soluble, Science. 316 (2007) 845–846.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.P. Burghardt, K. Ajtai, Cell biology. Heart brakes, Science. 337 (2012) 1182–1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Dwyer, J. Dushoff, S.H. Yee, The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks, Nature. 430 (2004) 341–345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Li, X. Yang, L. Xia, M.I. Majeed, B. Tan, Hollow microporous organic capsules, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Meiswinkel, J. Meyer, J. Schnell, Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
I.-K. Jang, ed., Cardiovascular OCT Imaging, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Narita, K. Harusawa, M. Yagihashi, H. Fujimoto, A Trial of Numerical Calculation of Wear for Artificial Hip Joints, in: K. Shirase, S. Aoyagi (Eds.), Service Robotics and Mechatronics: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Machine Automation ICMA2008, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 21–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synthetic Metals.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Cuckoos Use Mafia Tactics, And They Work, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Aviation Administration: Improved Tracking of Results Needed to Provide Confidence in Benefits of Streamlining Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Fahmy, Intoxicated by music: A content analysis of the prevalence of alcohol, illicit substances, and tobacco in popular music from 2000 to 2011, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.B. Garland, Vulnerable Older Adults, Abusive Guardians, New York Times. (2017) BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynthetic Metals
AbbreviationSynth. Met.
ISSN (print)0379-6779
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles