How to format your references using the Synthetic Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synthetic Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Asplund, Astronomy. The shining make-up of our star, Science. 322 (2008) 51–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Pouille, M. Scanziani, Routing of spike series by dynamic circuits in the hippocampus, Nature. 429 (2004) 717–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.A. Wender, J.-M. Kee, J.M. Warrington, Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV, Science. 320 (2008) 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Asmerom, H. Cheng, R. Thomas, M. Hirschmann, R.L. Edwards, Melting of the Earth’s lithospheric mantle inferred from protactinium-thorium-uranium isotopic data, Nature. 406 (2000) 293–296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Mackevičius, Introduction to Stochastic Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
L. George, T. Vardanega, eds., Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2014: 19th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Paris, France, June 23-27, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S.E. London, Prospective: How the Zebra Finch Genome Strengthens Brain-Behavior Connections in Songbird Models of Learned Vocalization, in: S.A. Helekar (Ed.), Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 89–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synthetic Metals.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Miniature Spinal Cords Grown In The Lab, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: FAA’s Deployments of Equipment to Detect Traces of Explosives, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.C. Ware, Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in older women: A modifiable lifestyle risk factor, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Washington Memo; Household Hiring Is Trickier With New Broom in Capital, New York Times. (1993) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynthetic Metals
AbbreviationSynth. Met.
ISSN (print)0379-6779
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles