How to format your references using the Synthetic Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synthetic Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Vela, Turn Spain’s budget crisis into an opportunity, Nature. 486 (2012) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Jacob, R. Martienssen, Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go, Science. 336 (2012) 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Yamada, A. Dautry, M. Walport, Ready for avian flu?, Nature. 454 (2008) 162.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Michaloglou, L.C.W. Vredeveld, M.S. Soengas, C. Denoyelle, T. Kuilman, C.M.A.M. van der Horst, D.M. Majoor, J.W. Shay, W.J. Mooi, D.S. Peeper, BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi, Nature. 436 (2005) 720–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I.W. Halbich, Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 1993.
An edited book
Y. Kaneda, ed., IUTAM Symposium on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, September, 11-14, 2006, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Basile, C. Bernardin, M. Jara, T. Komorowski, S. Olla, Thermal Conductivity in Harmonic Lattices with Random Collisions, in: S. Lepri (Ed.), Thermal Transport in Low Dimensions: From Statistical Physics to Nanoscale Heat Transfer, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 215–237.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synthetic Metals.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Black Holes Prevent Star Formation In Some Galaxies By Acting Like Thermostats, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Department of Education’s Actions To Collect Defaulted Student Loans, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.G. Willhite, Purification, Identification, and Partial Characterization of Proteins Associated with the Adaptive Immune Response to Soluble Protein Antigen in the American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana), Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Bishop, M. Pilon, A Community Recalls a Star Who Never Left, New York Times. (2012) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynthetic Metals
AbbreviationSynth. Met.
ISSN (print)0379-6779
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

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