How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2008). A debatable proposition. Nature, 451(7179), 621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chemla, Y. R., & Ha, T. (2014). Biophysics. Ultraslow relaxation of confined DNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6195), 380–381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyvat, M., Hafner, C., & Leuthold, J. (2014). Wireless control and selection of forces and torques--towards wireless engines. Scientific reports, 4, 5681.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Robinson, R. C., Turbedsky, K., Kaiser, D. A., Marchand, J. B., Higgs, H. N., Choe, S., & Pollard, T. D. (2001). Crystal structure of Arp2/3 complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1679–1684.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, M., & Bieker, G. (2009). Mastering. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Blowers, M. (Ed.). (2015). Evolution of Cyber Technologies and Operations to 2035 (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 63). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Palivonaite, R., Fedaravicius, A., Aleksa, A., & Ragulskis, M. (2013). Near-Optimal Moire Grating for Chaotic Dynamic Visual Cryptography. In H. B. Zaman, P. Robinson, P. Olivier, T. K. Shih, & S. Velastin (Eds.), Advances in Visual Informatics: Third International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2013, Selangor, Malaysia, November 13-15, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 48–58). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 30). Meet The Ghost Sharks And Deep-Sea Demons That Will Haunt Your Dreams. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Issues (No. T-RCED-93-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford, R. R. (2012). Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, June 7). Halep, Resigned to Defeat, Finds Out It’s Not Over Till It’s Over. New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chemla and Ha 2014; Goldston 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chemla and Ha 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Robinson et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent Information Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0925-9902
ISSN (online)1573-7675
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles