How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, B. (2014). Climate policy. IPCC lessons from Berlin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6192), 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R. A., & Helms, J. A. (2003). The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5606), 565–568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Browne, J., Tunnacliffe, A., & Burnell, A. (2002). Anhydrobiosis: plant desiccation gene found in a nematode. Nature, 416(6876), 38.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Song, H., Kim, Y., Jang, Y. H., Jeong, H., Reed, M. A., & Lee, T. (2009). Observation of molecular orbital gating. Nature, 462(7276), 1039–1043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schlechty, P. C. (2009). Leading for Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Chen, J. (2016). The Vixen Star Book User Guide: How to Use the Star Book TEN and the Original Star Book. (A. Chen, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, F., & Groß, H. (2009). Exploring Terra Incognita – Operating Hours in the Service Sector. In M. Smith, G. Cette, F. Bauer, & L. Delsen (Eds.), Comparative Analyses of Operating Hours and Working Times in the European Union (pp. 83–115). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014, October 27). How To Make A Rocket That Can Shoot 700 Metres Using Sugar And Kitty Litter. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities (No. RCED-96-79). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake, D. A. (2013). Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seelye, K. Q., Blinder, A., & Bidgood, J. (2017, August 19). Counterprotesters Surge Into Boston, Overshadowing a Planned Rally. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wible 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schneider and Helms 2003; Wible 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schneider and Helms 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent Information Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0925-9902
ISSN (online)1573-7675
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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