How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byatt, A. S. (2005). Fiction informed by science. Nature, 434(7031), 294–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brasier, M., & Antcliffe, J. (2004). Paleobiology. Decoding the Ediacaran enigma. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5687), 1115–1117.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shu, Y., Hasenstaub, A., & McCormick, D. A. (2003). Turning on and off recurrent balanced cortical activity. Nature, 423(6937), 288–293.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, Y.-M., Brinkmann, M. M., Paquet, M.-E., & Ploegh, H. L. (2008). UNC93B1 delivers nucleotide-sensing toll-like receptors to endolysosomes. Nature, 452(7184), 234–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer, J. H., & Drew, L. J. (2010). Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mason, J. W. (Ed.). (2008). Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thotahewa, K. M. S., Redouté, J.-M., & Yuce, M. R. (2014). Hardware Architectures for IR-UWB-Based Transceivers. In J.-M. Redouté & M. R. Yuce (Eds.), Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Networks (pp. 67–81). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 13). Anti-Science Senator Will Oversee Committee Covering NASA and Science Funding. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Its Oversight Role (No. GAO-10-314T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regmi, K. (2015). Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 21). Hands Speak Louder Than Words. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Byatt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Brasier and Antcliffe 2004; Byatt 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brasier and Antcliffe 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent Information Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0925-9902
ISSN (online)1573-7675
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles