How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gophna, U. (2011). Microbiology. The guts of dietary habits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6052), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheung, G. Y. C., & Otto, M. (2015). Microbiology: Diverted on the way to memory. Nature, 517(7532), 28–29.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, D., Wang, C., & Guyot-Sionnest, P. (2003). n-Type conducting CdSe nanocrystal solids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5623), 1277–1280.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Branderhorst, M. P. A., Londero, P., Wasylczyk, P., Brif, C., Kosut, R. L., Rabitz, H., & Walmsley, I. A. (2008). Coherent control of decoherence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5876), 638–643.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hadjsaïd, N., & Sabonnadière, J.-C. (2013). Power Systems and Restructuring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alexandrov, V. N., Albada, G. D. van, Sloot, P. M. A., & Dongarra, J. (Eds.). (2006). Computational Science – ICCS 2006: 6th International Conference, Reading, UK, May 28-31, 2006, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 3991). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ascoli, A., Schmidt, T., Tetzlaff, R., & Corinto, F. (2014). Application of the Volterra Series Paradigm to Memristive Systems. In R. Tetzlaff (Ed.), Memristors and Memristive Systems (pp. 163–191). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligent Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 6). Fossil Collecting Should Be For Everyone – Not Just Academics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Aviation Security: Screener Training and Performance Measurement Strengthened, but More Work Remains (No. GAO-05-457). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Linsenmeyer, J. P. (2017). A Nice Place to Live and Work: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of a Residential Life Living-Learning Community and Employment Model at a Top-Tier Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nossiter, A. (2007, September 28). Rare Supreme Court Stay Halts a Texas Execution. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gophna 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cheung and Otto 2015; Gophna 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheung and Otto 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Branderhorst et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligent Information Systems
AbbreviationJ. Intell. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0925-9902
ISSN (online)1573-7675
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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