How to format your references using the Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neubert T. Atmospheric science. On sprites and their exotic kin. Science 2003;300:747–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vandermeer J, Perfecto I. A keystone mutualism drives pattern in a power function. Science 2006;311:1000–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dulac C, O’Connell LA, Wu Z. Neural control of maternal and paternal behaviors. Science 2014;345:765–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Johnson TC, Brown ET, McManus J, Barry S, Barker P, Gasse F. A high-resolution paleoclimate record spanning the past 25,000 years in southern East Africa. Science 2002;296:113–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Torres-Moreno J-M. Automatic Text Summarization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bose P, van Dijk H, editors. Dryland Forests: Management and Social Diversity in Africa and Asia. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Gärtner B, Matoušek J. Duality and Cone Programming. In: Matousek J, editor. Approximation Algorithms and Semidefinite Programming, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 45–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Promising Rabies Treatment Cures Mice After Symptoms Appear. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mistake In Proposal Alleged After Award. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song X. A New Estimating Equation Based Approach for Secondary Trait Analyses in Genetic Case-control Studies. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scheiber N. Arthur Cinader, J. Crew Founder Who Defined Preppy, Dies at 90. New York Times 2017:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynthetic and Systems Biotechnology
AbbreviationSynth. Syst. Biotechnol.
ISSN (print)2405-805X

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