How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joyce, G.F., 2007. Structural biology. A glimpse of biology’s first enzyme. Science 315, 1507–1508.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucas, D., Frenette, P.S., 2014. Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche. Nature 511, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pullium, J.K., Roble, G.S., Raymond, M.A., 2014. Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature 514, 430.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Di Talia, S., Skotheim, J.M., Bean, J.M., Siggia, E.D., Cross, F.R., 2007. The effects of molecular noise and size control on variability in the budding yeast cell cycle. Nature 448, 947–951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, T., Andrews, G.J., Cummins, S., Greenhough, B., Lewis, D., Power, A., 2017. Health Geographies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Laflamme, M., Schiffbauer, J.D., Dornbos, S.Q. (Eds.), 2011. Quantifying the Evolution of Early Life: Numerical Approaches to the Evaluation of Fossils and Ancient Ecosystems, Topics in Geobiology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Boudjadar, A., Dingel, J., Madzar, B., Kim, J.H., 2016. Compositional Predictability Analysis of Mixed Critical Real Time Systems, in: Artho, C., Ölveczky, P.C. (Eds.), Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems: 4th International Workshop, FTSCS 2015, Paris, France, November 6-7, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Milky Way Pillages Star-Making Gas From Our Smallest Neighbors [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. A Summary of the Legislative Provisions of the Block Grants Created by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (No. IPE-83-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laskey, E., 2013. Plasma glucagon during development of insulin resistance among healthy individuals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., 2017. Tally of Suspect Accounts at Wells Fargo Grows by 1.4 Million. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joyce, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Joyce, 2007; Lucas and Frenette, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucas and Frenette, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Di Talia et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Sleep Circadian Rhythms
ISSN (print)2451-9944
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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