How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson, J.K., 2015. Quantum physics: Atomic doughnuts from single photons. Nature 519, 420–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bettencourt, L., West, G., 2010. A unified theory of urban living. Nature 467, 912–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brennan, M.D., Cheong, R., Levchenko, A., 2012. Systems biology. How information theory handles cell signaling and uncertainty. Science 338, 334–335.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, Z.G., Wang, X.Y., Wu, X.F., Zhang, B., 2006. X-ray flares from postmerger millisecond pulsars. Science 311, 1127–1129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry, M., 2010. Fixed Income Securities and Derivatives Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nedjah, N., Mourelle, L. de M., Alba, E. (Eds.), 2006. Parallel Evolutionary Computations, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sursock, A., 2016. The Shift to Strategic Internationalisation Approaches, in: Rosa, M.J., Sarrico, C.S., Tavares, O., Amaral, A. (Eds.), Cross-Border Higher Education and Quality Assurance: Commerce, the Services Directive and Governing Higher Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 73–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. New Medical Material Uses Snake Venom To Stem Bleeding [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1968. Why Is GAO Necessary and What Does It Hope To Accomplish? (No. 094489). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Araki, P.R., 2017. Golden Years Home Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Krauss, C., 2015. Breakdown at BP Refinery Strains Midwest Gas Prices. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bettencourt and West, 2010; Thompson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bettencourt and West, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Sleep Circadian Rhythms
ISSN (print)2451-9944
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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