How to format your references using the Biodiversity and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher L (2015) Avoid major disasters by welcoming minor change. Nature 527:9
A journal article with 2 authors
Powrie F, Maloy KJ (2003) Immunology. Regulating the regulators. Science 299:1030–1031
A journal article with 3 authors
Shimizu GKH, Taylor JM, Kim S (2013) Chemistry. Proton conduction with metal-organic frameworks. Science 341:354–355
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Watkins DN, Berman DM, Burkholder SG, et al (2003) Hedgehog signalling within airway epithelial progenitors and in small-cell lung cancer. Nature 422:313–317

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gup BE (2011) Banking and Financial Institutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lloyd HM (ed) (2013) The Discourse of Sensibility: The Knowing Body in the Enlightenment. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Baker NL, Mason JL (2010) Gender Issues in Psychological Testing of Personality and Abilities. In: Chrisler JC, McCreary DR (eds) Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology: Volume 2: Gender Research in Social and Applied Psychology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 63–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Check Out This Live stream Of Deep Underwater Exploration Around Hawaii. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Comments on Legislation To Establish a Department of Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regmi K (2015) Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) Saint Hillary. New York Times 622

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisher 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Powrie and Maloy 2003; Fisher 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Powrie and Maloy 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Watkins et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity and Conservation
AbbreviationBiodivers. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0960-3115
ISSN (online)1572-9710
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles