How to format your references using the Biodiversity and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biodiversity and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baird BN (2006) Comment on “Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.” Science 313:615; author reply 615
A journal article with 2 authors
Li X, Yang Y (2014) A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics. Sci Rep 4:6859
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima K, Krot AN, Yurimoto H (2004) Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature 428:921–924
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang S, Xu J, Wang W, et al (2018) Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature 555:83–88

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee (2005) Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Catalano D (2005) Contemporary Cryptology. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Staubert R (2008) Aperture Modulation Telescopes. In: Trümper JE, Hasinger G (eds) The Universe in X-Rays. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biodiversity and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Happy Sloth Week - Here’s Ten Facts About Sloths. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Secure Flight: Additional Actions Needed to Determine Program Effectiveness and Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant MG (2017) The Development of the Massive Open Online Course Virtual Learning Environment Scale (MVLE) and Model to Measure Satisfaction of MOOC Online Learning Courses in Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (1998) A Theater Boom Is Born In Russian Film Industry. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baird 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Baird 2006; Li and Yang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Yang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiodiversity and Conservation
AbbreviationBiodivers. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0960-3115
ISSN (online)1572-9710
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles