How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inglis, T. Developed Nations Must Not Fear Sending Ebola Help. Nature 2014, 514, 537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpicke, J.D.; Blunt, J.R. Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping. Science 2011, 331, 772–775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girvetz, E.H.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Thorne, J.H. Comment on “Roadless Space of the Conterminous United States.” Science 2007, 318, 1240; author reply 1240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S.; Zhang, H.; Pu, H.; Wang, G.; Li, W.; Leak, R.K.; Chen, J.; Liou, A.K.; Hu, X. N-3 PUFA Supplementation Benefits Microglial Responses to Myelin Pathology. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7458.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Love, J.; Bryant, J.A. Biofuels and Bioenergy; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781118350553.
An edited book
Steck, A. Brain and Mind: Subjective Experience and Scientific Objectivity; Steck, B., Ed.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319212869.
A chapter in an edited book
Coscia, P.; Palmieri, F.A.N.; Castaldo, F.; Cavallo, A. 3-D Hand Pose Estimation from Kinect’s Point Cloud Using Appearance Matching. In Advances in Neural Networks: Computational Intelligence for ICT; Bassis, S., Esposito, A., Morabito, F.C., Pasero, E., Eds.; Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 37–45 ISBN 9783319337463.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Flatworm Mating: Literally a Cockblock (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Review of Training Grant Awarded to the University of California at Los Angeles; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1970;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paaske, L.K. AVPV Kisspeptin Neurons Mediate Neuroprogesterone Induction of the Luteinizing Hormone Surge. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Amid Storm Recovery, Marathon Expo Opens Doors to Runners. New York Times 2012, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles