How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. With the United States on High Alert over the Possibility of Bioterror Attacks, Epidemiologists Are in Huge Demand. Nature 2003, 423, 784–785.
A journal article with 2 authors
King-Jones, K.; Thummel, C.S. Developmental Biology. Less Steroids Make Bigger Flies. Science 2005, 310, 630–631.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sarbu, T.; Styranec, T.; Beckman, E.J. Non-Fluorous Polymers with Very High Solubility in Supercritical CO2 down to Low Pressures. Nature 2000, 405, 165–168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shen, S.; Zhou, J.; Dong, C.-L.; Hu, Y.; Tseng, E.N.; Guo, P.; Guo, L.; Mao, S.S. Surface Engineered Doping of Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6627.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weller, R.B.; Hunter, H.J.A.; Mann, M.W. Clinical Dermatology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118938164.
An edited book
Multidisciplinary Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Staging – Treatment – Pathology – Palliation; Baatrup, G., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319061412.
A chapter in an edited book
Laurence, V.; Rousset-Jablonski, C. Contraception and Cancer Treatment in Young Persons. In Reproductive Health and Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults; Quinn, G.P., Vadaparampil, S.T., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 41–60 ISBN 9789400724914.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. One of Science’s Most Powerful Tools Might Be Coming to Your Phone Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Multiyear Leasing and Government-Wide Purchasing of Automatic Data Processing Equipment Should Result in Significant Savings; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1971;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tolley, C.B. The Role of Trust and Care in the Implementation of a Social Constructivist Curriculum in Physical Education. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W. Taking Aim at Sidewalk Scaffolding, That Unwanted Neighbor. New York Times 2016, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles