How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romani, R.W. Astronomy. Pulsar Beams--Big and Bright. Science 2014, 344, 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaton, D.W.; Frederiksen, A. Seismic Evidence for Convection-Driven Motion of the North American Plate. Nature 2007, 446, 428–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesel, H.; Renz, A.; Hasselbach, F. Observation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss Anticorrelations for Free Electrons. Nature 2002, 418, 392–394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hara, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Akuzawa, T.; Hirai, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Sato, K. Rer1 and Calnexin Regulate Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention of a Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 Mutant That Causes Type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch, D.; Schott, D. Mathematische Statistik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527692095.
An edited book
Ajith, A. Stigmergic Optimization; Crina, G., Vitorino, R., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 31; ISBN 9783540346890.
A chapter in an edited book
Etienne, J.-F.; Fechter, S.; Juppeaux, E. Using Simulink Design Verifier for Proving Behavioral Properties on a Complex Safety Critical System in the Ground Transportation Domain. In Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Complex System Design & Management CSDM 2010; Aiguier, M., Bretaudeau, F., Krob, D., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 61–72 ISBN 9783642156533.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Hale, T. The White House Starts Twitter Account To Spread Awareness Of Climate Change (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Statutory Copyright Licenses: Stakeholders’ Views on a Phaseout of Licenses for Broadcast Programming; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gifford, S.C. (Re)Making Men, Representing the Caribbean Nation: Authorial Individuation in Works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. In Miami, a House Comes to Visit. New York Times 2013, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles