How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nürnberg, D. PALEOCLIMATE: Taking the Temperature of Past Ocean Surfaces. Science 2000, 289, 1698–1699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapira, P.; Wang, J. Follow the money. Nature 2010, 468, 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, I.G.; Savulescu, J.; Adashi, E.Y. Medicine. Transatlantic lessons in regulation of mitochondrial replacement therapy. Science 2015, 348, 178–180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osaka, M.; Yaoi, K.; Minamoto, T.; Osaka, N. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C.A. Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471733188.
An edited book
Serial Murder and the Psychology of Violent Crimes; Kocsis, R.N., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9781588296856.
A chapter in an edited book
Fugini, M.; Maggiolini, P.; Vallès, R.S. Public Innovative ICT Based Employment Services Success Factors. In Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways; Spagnoletti, P., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 41–49 ISBN 9783642372278.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. WHO Approves 15-Minute Ebola Test Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman, T.F. A descriptive review of the development and implementation of a funding model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The first 10 years, 1998–2008. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J.; Martin, J. Kansas Republican Survives Tight Congressional Race to Win House Seat. New York Times 2017, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles