How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance, I. A molecular pathway for the egress of ammonia produced by nitrogenase. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voytas, D.F.; Joung, J.K. Plant science. DNA binding made easy. Science 2009, 326, 1491–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams, C.C.; Jan, C.H.; Weissman, J.S. Targeting and plasticity of mitochondrial proteins revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling. Science 2014, 346, 748–751.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gore, J.; Bryant, Z.; Stone, M.D.; Nöllmann, M.; Cozzarelli, N.R.; Bustamante, C. Mechanochemical analysis of DNA gyrase using rotor bead tracking. Nature 2006, 439, 100–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehman, R.; McMillan, L.G. Options for Volatile Markets; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118531518.
An edited book
IUTAM Symposium on Physicochemical and Electromechanical Interactions in Porous Media; Gladwell, G.M.L., Huyghe, J.M., Raats, P.A.C., Cowin, S.C., Eds.; Solid Mechanics and Its Applications; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; Vol. 125; ISBN 9781402038648.
A chapter in an edited book
Hatfield, J.L. Soil Degradation, Land Use, and Sustainability. In Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture; Songstad, D.D., Hatfield, J.L., Tomes, D.T., Eds.; Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 61–74 ISBN 9783642552618.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Google Teams Up With Levi’s To Create Wearable Electronics Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: Emergency Responders Receive Support, but DOT Could Improve Oversight of Information Sharing; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, S.R. Freshman transition programs: Effect on ninth grade student preparedness. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, M.; Protess, B. S.E.C. Chairman Expected to Name Two to Key Enforcement Positions. New York Times 2017, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles