How to format your references using the Symmetry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symmetry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Janson, S. Computer Science. Networking--Smoothly Does It. Science 2011, 333, 298–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siomi, H.; Siomi, M.C. RNA. Phased PiRNAs Tackle Transposons. Science 2015, 348, 756–757.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galy, V.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. Global Carbon Export from the Terrestrial Biosphere Controlled by Erosion. Nature 2015, 521, 204–207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Abo-Shaeer, J.R.; Raman, C.; Vogels, J.M.; Ketterle, W. Observation of Vortex Lattices in Bose-Einstein Condensates. Science 2001, 292, 476–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico, W.J. Electrical Estimating Methods; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118963234.
An edited book
Structural And Functional Organization Of The Synapse; Hell, J.W., Ehlers, M.D., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; ISBN 9780387772318.
A chapter in an edited book
Gross, R.H.; De Jager, P.L. MS: Epidemiology and Genetics. In Clinical Neuroimmunology: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders; Rizvi, S.A., Coyle, P.K., Eds.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2011; pp. 71–87 ISBN 9781603278591.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symmetry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. NASA’s Going To Launch A Flying Saucer Today - Here’s How To Watch (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Pipeline Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Help Strengthen Security, but Could Improve Priority-Setting and Assessment Processes; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sun, Z. A Qualitative Study of Chinese Parents’ Beliefs, Involvement and Challenges in Support of Their Children’s English Language Development in China. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E.; Bradsher, K. After Pair of Crashes in 2 Months, Navy Will Pause for Safety Check. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSymmetry
AbbreviationSymmetry (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-8994
ScopeChemistry (miscellaneous)
Computer Science (miscellaneous)
General Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles