How to format your references using the BMC Oral Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Oral Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cuntz M. Carbon cycle: a dent in carbon’s gold standard. Nature. 2011;477:547–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Morata G, Ballesteros-Arias L. Developmental Biology. Death to the losers. Science. 2014;346:1181–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lim M, Metzler R, Bar-Yam Y. Global pattern formation and ethnic/cultural violence. Science. 2007;317:1540–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Guénon S, Ramírez JG, Basaran AC, Wampler J, Thiemens M, Taylor S, et al. Search for superconductivity in micrometeorites. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Price J. The Conscious Investor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Berleur J, Nurminen MI, Impagliazzo J, editors. Social Informatics: An Information Society for all? In Remembrance of Rob Kling: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC7), IFIP TC 9, Maribor, Slovenia, September 21–23, 2006. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bowden R, Ellis L, Kittler J, Shevchenko M, Windridge D. Unsupervised Symbol Grounding and Cognitive Bootstrapping in Cognitive Vision. In: Roli F, Vitulano S, editors. Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2005: 13th International Conference, Cagliari, Italy, September 6-8, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Oral Health.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Researchers Unravel The Mysteries Of The Basque People. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Registered Traveler Program Policy and Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Broussard J. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund. New York Times. 2017;:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Oral Health
AbbreviationBMC Oral Health
ISSN (online)1472-6831
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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