How to format your references using the Journal of Young Pharmacists citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Young Pharmacists. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell BA. Forces in development. Forceful thinking. Introduction. Science. 2012;338(6104):209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubinoff D, Haines WP. Web-spinning caterpillar stalks snails. Science. 2005;309(5734):575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng C, Liu X, Wang G. Electrically tunable graphene plasmonic quasicrystal metasurfaces for transformation optics. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5763.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Decker RB, Krimigis SM, Roelof EC, et al. Voyager 1 in the foreshock, termination shock, and heliosheath. Science. 2005;309(5743):2020-2024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kula G, Raab M, Stahn S. Beyond Smart Beta. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Othieno H. Energy Resources in Africa: Distribution, Opportunities and Challenges. (Awange J, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Donoghue T, Harford J. Secondary School Education in Schools of the Irish Christian Brothers in Ireland, 1922–1962. In: Harford J, ed. Secondary School Education in Ireland: History, Memories and Life Stories, 1922–1967. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:55-86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Young Pharmacists.

Blog post
Luntz S. Hydrogen-Rich Waters May Support Life Far Underground. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Security: Concerns Remain Due to Personnel and Other Continuing Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eisenbeiser CK. Parents’ Experience of Involvement in the Lives of Community College Students: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Closet Is the Highest Form of Flattery. New York Times. February 6, 2014:E8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Young Pharmacists
AbbreviationJ. Young Pharm.
ISSN (print)0975-1483
ScopeGeneral Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

Other styles