How to format your references using the Swiss Journal of Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swiss Journal of Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willig, M. R. (2011). Ecology. Biodiversity and productivity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6050), 1709–1710.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosi, B. J., & Biber, E. G. N. (2012). Conservation. Citizen involvement in the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6096), 802–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gollo, L. L., Kinouchi, O., & Copelli, M. (2013). Single-neuron criticality optimizes analog dendritic computation. Scientific reports, 3, 3222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Crook, R., Graham, A. C., Smith, C. G., Farrer, I., Beere, H. E., & Ritchie, D. A. (2003). Erasable electrostatic lithography for quantum components. Nature, 424(6950), 751–754.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Savaux, V., & Louët, Y. (2014). MMSE-Based Algorithm for Joint Signal Detection, Channel and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Coppola, C. P., Kennedy, A. P., Jr., & Scorpio, R. J. (Eds.). (2014). Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Torras, C. (2005). Natural Inspiration for Artificial Adaptivity: Some Neurocomputing Experiences in Robotics. In C. S. Calude, M. J. Dinneen, G. Păun, M. J. Pérez-Jímenez, & G. Rozenberg (Eds.), Unconventional Computation: 4th International Conference, UC 2005, Sevilla, Spain, October 3 – 7, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 32–45). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swiss Journal of Geosciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 10). Climate Warming is Turning Mummies into Black Ooze. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California (No. AFMD-83-40). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poudyal Kharel, A. (2015). Pyrolysis Studies of Copper and Copper Phosphate Mixtures on a Tungsten Surface (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Times, T. N. Y. (2016, October 26). What Else Is on the Ballot in the U.S.? Minimum Wage, Death Penalty and Guns. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willig 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brosi and Biber 2012; Willig 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brosi and Biber 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Crook et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSwiss Journal of Geosciences
AbbreviationSwiss J. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1661-8726
ISSN (online)1661-8734

Other styles