How to format your references using the Medical Science Educator citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Science Educator. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Huang LE. Biochemistry. How HIF-1α handles stress. Science. 2013;339:1285–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sherman G, Visscher PK. Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing. Nature. 2002;419:920–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Royer DL, Berner RA, Park J. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature. 2007;446:530–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sabater D, Arriarán S, Romero M del M, Agnelli S, Remesar X, Fernández-López JA, et al. Cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes dispose of excess medium glucose as lactate under abundant oxygen availability. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knopf FC. Modeling, Analysis and Optimization of Process and Energy Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Tsinganos K, Ray T, Stute M, editors. Protostellar Jets in Context. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marcus DA, Deodhar A. Assessment and Diagnosis. In: Marcus DA, editor. Fibromyalgia: A Practical Clinical Guide. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Science Educator.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Can You Really Be Addicted To Love? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Transportation: Credit Assistance for Surface Transportation Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jun. Report No.: OGC-99-50.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McGaughey KM. Textural juxtaposition: Representing the natural and the human in Elements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Almosawa S, Hubbard B. Saudi-Led Airstrikes Blamed for Massacre of Scores of Yemeni Mourners. New York Times. 2016 Oct 8;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Science Educator
AbbreviationMed. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (online)2156-8650

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