How to format your references using the Medical Science Educator citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Science Educator. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rice SA. Optical control of reactions. Nature. 2000;403:496–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Park CY, Dolmetsch R. Cell signaling. The double life of a transcription factor takes it outside the nucleus. Science. 2006;314:64–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Duan Q, Goodale E, Quan R-C. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5627.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhu Y, Murali S, Stoller MD, Ganesh KJ, Cai W, Ferreira PJ, et al. Carbon-based supercapacitors produced by activation of graphene. Science. 2011;332:1537–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Geman H. Agricultural Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Moller L, Huett JB, Harvey DM, editors. Learning and Instructional Technologies for the 21st Century: Visions of the Future. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Richmond S, Al Ali AM, Beldie L, Chong YT, Cronin A, Djordjevic J, et al. Detailing Patient Specific Modeling to Aid Clinical Decision-Making. In: Calvo Lopez B, Peña E, editors. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 105–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Science Educator.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. UN Meets Target To Treat 15 million People With HIV [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Welfare Reform: Improving State Automated Systems Requires Coordinated Federal Effort. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-00-48.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Liburd-Shaddai JL. The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Tierney J. Easy Ways to Mend Your Marriage. New York Times. 2017 Sep 18;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Science Educator
AbbreviationMed. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (online)2156-8650

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