How to format your references using the Medical Science Educator citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Science Educator. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rishbeth H. High above the Earth. Nature. 2002;418:23.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cohen J, Stewart I. Where are the dolphins? Nature. 2001;409:1119–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Foth C, Tischlinger H, Rauhut OWM. New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature. 2014;511:79–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sakamoto Y, Kaneda M, Terasaki O, Zhao DY, Kim JM, Stucky G, et al. Direct imaging of the pores and cages of three-dimensional mesoporous materials. Nature. 2000;408:449–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Samara T. ERP and Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Younes A, Coiffier B, editors. Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kätsch C. Assessing Landscape Attributes. In: Gadow K von, Pukkala T, editors. Designing Green Landscapes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 79–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Science Educator.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Diet Drinks Linked To Expanding Waistlines In Older Adults. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Progress Made, but Significant Requirements and Recommendations Not Yet Complete. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-1075.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Winter JM. Investigating the biosynthesis of halogenated meroterpenoid natural products from marine actinomycetes [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2017 Jun 16;MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Science Educator
AbbreviationMed. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (online)2156-8650

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