How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cebrian J: ECOLOGY. Energy flows in ecosystems. Science 2015;349:1053–1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth B, Kovas Y: Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science 2013;340:300–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur B, McLoughlin S, Vajda V: Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science 2014;343:1376–1377.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sørensen A, Duan LM, Cirac JI, Zoller P: Many-particle entanglement with Bose-Einstein condensates. Nature 2001;409:63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curtis PM: Maintaining Mission Critical Systems in a 24/7 Environment, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Decker BD, Lapon J, Naessens V, Uhl A, editors: Communications and Multimedia Security: 12th IFIP TC 6 / TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 19-21,2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Yong C, Booth DC: Seismic hazard and risk assessment; in Booth DC (ed): The Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008: Anatomy of a Disaster. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 160–185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: How Close Are We To Finding Another Earth? [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Income Security Issue Area: Active Assignments, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JT: The relationship between technology support and extent of technology integration into college-level foreign language curricula 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B: Fangs, Fur and Plenty of Firepower. New York Times 2017;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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