How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohn MJ: Evolutionary biology: lamprey Hox genes and the origin of jaws. Nature 2002;416:386–387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Viscidi RP, Shah KV: Cancer. A skin cancer virus? Science 2008;319:1049–1050.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak MA, Komarova NL, Niyogi P: Evolution of universal grammar. Science 2001;291:114–118.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sugiura T, Ogawa H, Fukuda N, Moriguchi T: Changes in the taste and textural attributes of apples in response to climate change. Sci Rep 2013;3:2418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodda HJE, Little MA: Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Lawson HA, van Veen D, editors: Developing Community Schools, Community Learning Centers, Extended-service Schools and Multi-service Schools: International Exemplars for Practice, Policy and Research, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hankela E: “It’s Only the Glass Door, Which Breaks Every Day.” Layered Politics of (Dis)Order at the Central Methodist Mission; in Wilhelm-Solomon M, Núñez L, Kankonde Bukasa P, Malcomess B (eds): Routes and Rites to the City: Mobility, Diversity and Religious Space in Johannesburg. London, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: Female Bed Bugs Tolerate Being Traumatically Stabbed By The Male’s Penis [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Core Competencies for Financial System Analysts in the Federal Government (Exposure Draft), Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konggidinata MI: Application and Modifications of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC) for BTEX Removal: Characterization, Adsorption Mechanisms, and Kinetic Studies 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L: 3 Former Executives Of Symbol on Trial. New York Times 2006;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles