How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kündig P: Chemistry. The future of organic synthesis. Science 2006;314:430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holman MJ, Murray NW: The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets. Science 2005;307:1288–1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlin S, Bergman A, Gentles AJ: Genomics. Annotation of the Drosophila genome. Nature 2001;411:259–260.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ma C, Han M, Heinrich B, Fu Q, Zhang Q, Sandhu M, et al.: Gut microbiome-mediated bile acid metabolism regulates liver cancer via NKT cells. Science 2018;360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jank W, Shmueli G: Modeling Online Auctions, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Acampora G, Loia V, Lee C-S, Wang M-H, editors: On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma Y-F, Li HX, Sun P: A Lightweight Agent Fabric for Service Autonomy; in Huang J, Kowalczyk R, Maamar Z, Martin D, Müller I, Stoutenburg S, et al. (eds): Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2007 International Workshop, SOCASE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2007, pp 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: Two More Mysterious Siberian Craters Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of Selected Contracts Awarded by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rangwala R: The Role of the PDZ Protein, Erbin, in Schwann Cells 2005;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kitsantonis N: Debt Relief, With Pain, Is on the Way For Greece. New York Times 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles