How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q: Clouded vision. Nature 2003;422:356–357.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miroshnichenko AE, Kivshar YS: Applied physics. Polarization traffic control for surface plasmons. Science 2013;340:283–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li J, Sato T, Kageyama A: Repeated and sudden reversals of the dipole field generated by a spherical dynamo action. Science 2002;295:1887–1890.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hildebrand ME, Pitcher GM, Harding EK, Li H, Beggs S, Salter MW: GluN2B and GluN2D NMDARs dominate synaptic responses in the adult spinal cord. Sci Rep 2014;4:4094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell RS, Cosner C: Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004.
An edited book
Gamage DT, editor: Professional Development for Leaders and Managers of Self-Governing Schools, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Okita T, van Genabith J: Minimum Bayes Risk Decoding with Enlarged Hypothesis Space in System Combination; in Gelbukh A (ed): Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 13th International Conference, CICLing 2012, New Delhi, India, March 11-17, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: Hefty Hedgehog Freed from Railings After Becoming Trapped Overnight [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: International Space Station: Significant Challenges May Limit Onboard Research, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson KR: Student perception of teachers’ National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and California Commission on Teacher Credentialing dispositions 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: Untouchable Pensions May Be Tested in California. New York Times 2012;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles