How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tammann GA: Allan Sandage (1926-2010). Nature 2010;468:898.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla C, Tang Y: Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics. Science 2005;308:367–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB: A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature 2005;434:699–700.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang Z-C, Tang C-H, Zhang Y, Gong H, Li X, Wang J: Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application. Sci Rep 2013;3:2925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson JC: Lean Auditing, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Benvenisti E, Gans C, Hanafi S, editors: Israel and the Palestinian Refugees, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansson A, Goossens K: Instantiation; in Goossens K (ed): On-Chip Interconnect with aelite: Composable and Predictable Systems. New York, NY, Springer, 2011, pp 103–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
Felton J: This Guy Stopped The Biggest Ransomware Attack In History. This Was His Reward .. [Internet]. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Needs to Address Risks Associated with Its Accelerated Systems Development Strategy, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziv A: Dynamics in interactions with digital technology: A depth psychological/theoretical exploration of the evolutionary-biological, symbolic, and emotional psyche in the digital age 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L: Judge Selection To Be Reviewed By U.S. Justices. New York Times 2007;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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