How to format your references using the Caries Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Caries Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riding R: Geochemistry. A hard life for cyanobacteria. Science 2012;336:427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulcahy NJ, Call J: Apes save tools for future use. Science 2006;312:1038–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kunchulia M, Pilz KS, Herzog MH: Small effects of smoking on visual spatiotemporal processing. Sci Rep 2014;4:7316.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim J-M, Park J-H, Lee CK, Lee S-Y: Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep 2014;4:4602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ness L: Securing Utility and Energy Infrastructures, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
Dameri RP, Rosenthal-Sabroux C, editors: Smart City: How to Create Public and Economic Value with High Technology in Urban Space, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Simpson CG, Brown JWS: U12-Dependent Intron Splicing in Plants; in Reddy ASN, Golovkin M (eds): Nuclear pre-mRNA Processing in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008, pp 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Caries Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: Neanderthal genome shows high levels of inbreeding [Internet]. IFLScience 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Health Information Technology: HHS is Continuing Efforts to Define a National Strategy, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier TH: Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A: Latest Economic Lifeline Is a Leafy One. New York Times 2015;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCaries Research
AbbreviationCaries Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6568
ISSN (online)1421-976X
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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