How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe S. Slow or fast? A tale of synaptic vesicle recycling. Science. 2015;350(6256):46-47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kepinski S, Leyser O. The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature. 2005;435(7041):446-451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freimund DL, Aflatooni K, Batelaan H. Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect. Nature. 2001;413(6852):142-143.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen ES, Zhang K, Nicolas E, Cam HP, Zofall M, Grewal SIS. Cell cycle control of centromeric repeat transcription and heterochromatin assembly. Nature. 2008;451(7179):734-737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minuth WW, Strehl R, Schumacher K. Tissue Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Harland DM. Space Systems Failures: Disasters and Rescues of Satellites, Rockets and Space Probes. (Lorenz R, ed.). New York, NY: Praxis; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Anastassiou GA, Argyros IK. Implicit Iterative Algorithms and Their Applications in Multivariate Calculus. In: Argyros IK, ed. Intelligent Numerical Methods II: Applications to Multivariate Fractional Calculus. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:63-70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Methods.

Blog post
Davis J. Dramatic Jump Of Global Temperature In 2016 Has Shocked Scientists. IFLScience. Published July 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. HUD-Assisted Renters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak SC. Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
David Goodman J. Police Issue Fewer Tickets for Minor Offenses Such as Public Urination. New York Times. October 20, 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Methods
AbbreviationPharm. Methods
ISSN (print)2229-4708

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