How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gaffan D. Neuroscience. Widespread cortical networks underlie memory and attention. Science. 2005;309(5744):2172-2173.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gick B, Derrick D. Aero-tactile integration in speech perception. Nature. 2009;462(7272):502-504.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kirichok Y, Navarro B, Clapham DE. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of spermatozoa reveal an alkaline-activated Ca2+ channel. Nature. 2006;439(7077):737-740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wang D, Zhu W, Best MD, Camden JP, Crozier KB. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Yin G. Clinical Trial Design: Bayesian and Frequentist Adaptive Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Fortis M, ed. The Pillars of the Italian Economy: Manufacturing, Food & Wine, Tourism. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sun Y, Nishida T, Thompson SE. Band Structures of Strained Semiconductors. In: Thompson SE, Nishida T, eds. Strain Effect in Semiconductors: Theory and Device Applications. Springer US; 2010:51-135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Methods.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Indonesia Sets Fire To Endangered Stuffed Animals In Their Fight Against Poachers. IFLScience. Published May 24, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/indonesia-sets-fire-endangered-stuffed-animals-their-fight-poachers/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Financial Literacy: Overlap of Programs Suggests There May Be Opportunities for Consolidation. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Yao D. In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Schmidt MS. Trump Appealed to Comey to Halt Inquiry Into Aide. New York Times. May 16, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Methods
AbbreviationPharm. Methods
ISSN (print)2229-4708
Scope

Other styles