How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson DJ. Planetary science: Mission to Earth’s core--a modest proposal. Nature. 2003;423(6937):239-240.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maher BA, Dennis PF. Evidence against dust-mediated control of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2. Nature. 2001;411(6834):176-180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bandyopadhyay PR, Leinhos HA, Hellum AM. Handedness helps homing in swimming and flying animals. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1128.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hrdy I, Hirt RP, Dolezal P, et al. Trichomonas hydrogenosomes contain the NADH dehydrogenase module of mitochondrial complex I. Nature. 2004;432(7017):618-622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney KA, Chappell JR, Callan RJ, Connally BA. Veterinary Euthanasia Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,; 2012.
An edited book
Maria ED, Micelli S, eds. On Line Citizenship: Emerging Technologies for European Cities. Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Howard DM, Kirchhübel C. Acoustic Correlates of Deceptive Speech – An Exploratory Study. In: Harris D, ed. Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 9th International Conference, EPCE 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:28-37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Methods.

Blog post
Andrew D. Mums And Dads Of Very Preterm Babies More Likely To Be Depressed. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed to Address Credit Union Systems’ Year 2000 Problem. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farhad K. Development of a web-based educational resource on the most effective micronutrients in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, Fernandez M. Stricter Rules Over Voter IDs Reshape Races. New York Times. May 2, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Methods
AbbreviationPharm. Methods
ISSN (print)2229-4708

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