How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackenzie D. MATHEMATICS: Taking the Measure of the Wildest Dance on Earth. Science. 2000;290(5498):1883-1884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hinde K, Lewis ZT. MICROBIOTA. Mother’s littlest helpers. Science. 2015;348(6242):1427-1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith FG, Davies R, Lyne A. Bernard Lovell (1913-2012). Nature. 2012;488(7413):592.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim J, Dong H, Seabaugh J, Newell SW, Eberl DD. Role of microbes in the smectite-to-illite reaction. Science. 2004;303(5659):830-832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deacon M, Derry A, Mirfendereski D. Inflation-Indexed Securities. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Green JE, Ried T, eds. Genetically Engineered Mice for Cancer Research: Design, Analysis, Pathways, Validation and Pre-Clinical Testing. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Carrer A, Giacca M, Giacca M. Molecular Parameters for Prognostic and Predictive Assessment in Colorectal Cancer. In: Manzini N de, ed. Rectal Cancer: Strategy and Surgical Techniques. Updates in Surgery. Milano: Springer; 2013:41-62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Methods.

Blog post
Fang J. 130-Million-Year-Old Fossil from China is the Oldest Relative of Today’s Birds. IFLScience. Published May 6, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety and Security: Improved Workforce Planning and Communication Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meier MR. Exploring the effects of school calendars on student achievement. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. It’s Like “Sex and the City,” Only the City Is Moscow. New York Times. December 29, 2005:E3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Methods
AbbreviationPharm. Methods
ISSN (print)2229-4708

Other styles