How to format your references using the Pharmaceutical Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmaceutical Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greely HT. Get ready for the flood of fetal gene screening. Nature. 2011;469(7330):289-291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu B, Tao NJ. Measurement of single-molecule resistance by repeated formation of molecular junctions. Science. 2003;301(5637):1221-1223.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley RS, Hughes MK, Diaz HF. Climate change. Climate in Medieval time. Science. 2003;302(5644):404-405.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu R, Chen Q, Dong B, Yu F. Effects of vegetative propagule pressure on the establishment of an introduced clonal plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh AKME, Arashi M, Tabatabaey SMM. Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Verdonschot PFM, Wang H, Pinder A, Nijboer R, eds. Aquatic Oligochaete Biology IX: Selected Papers from the 9th Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta, 6–10 October 2003, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Vol 186. Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Poddar-Sarkar M, Chakroborty A, Bhar R, Brahmachary RL. Putative Pheromones of Lion Mane and Its Ultrastructure. In: Hurst JL, Beynon RJ, Roberts SC, Wyatt TD, eds. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 11. Springer; 2008:61-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmaceutical Methods.

Blog post
Andrew E. Let’s Call It: 30 Years Of Above Average Temperatures Means The Climate Has Changed. IFLScience. Published February 26, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Bureau of Standards--Information and Observations on Its Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen DN. Career decision process of first generation Vietnamese American college students. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Cadets Can’t Catch Cougars. New York Times. November 21, 1999:811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaceutical Methods
AbbreviationPharm. Methods
ISSN (print)2229-4708

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