How to format your references using the Swarm Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Git, A. (2012). Research tools: A recipe for disaster. Nature, 484(7395), 439–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Q., & Lemke, G. (2001). Homeostatic regulation of the immune system by receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro 3 family. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5528), 306–311.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoder, B. L., Bisson, R., & Beck, R. D. (2010). Steric effects in the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100). Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5991), 553–556.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, E. W., McDermott, G., Zgurskaya, H. I., Nikaido, H., & Koshland, D. E., Jr. (2003). Structural basis of multiple drug-binding capacity of the AcrB multidrug efflux pump. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5621), 976–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R. S. (2011). Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Belbachir, A. N. (Ed.). (2010). Smart Cameras. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Isla, A. (2015). Greening Costa Rica. In R. C. Mitchell & S. A. Moore (Eds.), Planetary Praxis & Pedagogy: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Sustainability (pp. 73–93). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm Intelligence.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). World’s Oldest Muscle-Fibre Fossil Reveals The Origin Of Legs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Security at Nation’s Highest Risk Airports (No. T-RCED-88-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhantole, G. (2014). Evaluating provision of healthcare system in the U.S (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, June 26). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Journalist’s Appeal Turned Down. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Git 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Git 2012; Lu and Lemke 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Lemke 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm Intelligence
AbbreviationSwarm Intell.
ISSN (print)1935-3812
ISSN (online)1935-3820
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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