How to format your references using the Swarm Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Serrano, M. (2011). Cancer: final act of senescence. Nature, 479(7374), 481–482.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bekerman, E., & Einav, S. (2015). Infectious disease. Combating emerging viral threats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6232), 282–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eberhardt, M. V., Lee, C. Y., & Liu, R. H. (2000). Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature, 405(6789), 903–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Quan, T., Li, J., Zhou, H., Li, S., Zheng, T., Yang, Z., et al. (2014). Digital reconstruction of the cell body in dense neural circuits using a spherical-coordinated variational model. Scientific reports, 4, 4970.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, P. (2015). Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Caforio, G. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of the Sociology of the Military. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pinheiro, A., Canedo, E. D., de Sousa, R. T., & de Oliveira Albuquerque, R. (2016). A Proposed Protocol for Periodic Monitoring of Cloud Storage Services Using Trust and Encryption. In O. Gervasi, B. Murgante, S. Misra, A. M. A. C. Rocha, C. M. Torre, D. Taniar, et al. (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2016: 16th International Conference, Beijing, China, July 4-7, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 45–59). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm Intelligence.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, October 5). Bright Blue Stars Seen Hatching From A Dark Nebula. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Automatic Data Processing Activity in the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio (No. 088725). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee, S. (2013). A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, August 4). The Mets Believe Cabrera Could Be a Keeper. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Serrano 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bekerman and Einav 2015; Serrano 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bekerman and Einav 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Quan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm Intelligence
AbbreviationSwarm Intell.
ISSN (print)1935-3812
ISSN (online)1935-3820
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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