How to format your references using the Swarm Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eggleston, C. M. (2008). Geochemistry. Toward new uses for hematite. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5873), 184–185.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burch, C. L., & Chao, L. (2000). Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature, 406(6796), 625–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, J., Weiske, A., & Berger, F. (2013). Thunderbolt in biogeochemistry: galvanic effects of lightning as another source for metal remobilization. Scientific reports, 3, 3122.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van der Hilst, R. D., de Hoop, M. V., Wang, P., Shim, S.-H., Ma, P., & Tenorio, L. (2007). Seismostratigraphy and thermal structure of Earth’s core-mantle boundary region. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1813–1817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrucelli, J. R. (2013). Detecting Fraud in Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sakata, T. (Ed.). (2016). Applied Matrix and Tensor Variate Data Analysis (1st ed. 2016.). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Fleischer, T., Jahnel, J., & Seitz, S. B. (2014). Technology Assessment Beyond Toxicology – The Case of Nanomaterials. In S. Arnaldi, A. Ferrari, P. Magaudda, & F. Marin (Eds.), Responsibility in Nanotechnology Development (pp. 79–96). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm Intelligence.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, July 11). There’s A Bunch Of Hidden Easter Eggs Inside The Source Code For The Apollo 11 Mission. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Substance Abuse Surveys (No. HEHS-96-179R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez-Zuebisch, L. C. (2010). A phenomenological exploration of the learning values derived from instructional short videos among adult learners (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J. (2016, December 12). Creating a Safer Phone Battery (This One Won’t Catch Fire). New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eggleston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Burch and Chao 2000; Eggleston 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burch and Chao 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (van der Hilst et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm Intelligence
AbbreviationSwarm Intell.
ISSN (print)1935-3812
ISSN (online)1935-3820
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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