How to format your references using the Swarm Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). First for physics Chicago. Nature, 424(6949), 706–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore, T., & Armstrong, K. M. (2003). Selective gating of visual signals by microstimulation of frontal cortex. Nature, 421(6921), 370–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wojtak, R., Hansen, S. H., & Hjorth, J. (2011). Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity. Nature, 477(7366), 567–569.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Metcalf, D., Greenhalgh, C. J., Viney, E., Willson, T. A., Starr, R., Nicola, N. A., et al. (2000). Gigantism in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signalling-2. Nature, 405(6790), 1069–1073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. (2014). Energy Materials 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scarabino, T. (Ed.). (2012). Imaging Gliomas After Treatment: A Case-based Atlas. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese, A., Piuri, V., & Scotti, F. (2014). Palmprint Biometrics. In V. Piuri & F. Scotti (Eds.), Touchless Palmprint Recognition Systems (pp. 49–109). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm Intelligence.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 16). Shedding New Light On The Search For The ‘Invisible’ Dark Matter. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early (No. T-NSIAD-88-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornheimer, M. E. (2010). The influence of leadership development programs on the community college leadership shortage: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2011, October 9). Characters Welcome. New York Times, p. ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Moore and Armstrong 2003; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Armstrong 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Metcalf et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm Intelligence
AbbreviationSwarm Intell.
ISSN (print)1935-3812
ISSN (online)1935-3820
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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