How to format your references using the Sustainable Materials and Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Materials and Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.C. Clary, Chemistry. Geometric phase in chemical reactions, Science. 309 (2005) 1195–1196.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.J. Matear, B.I. McNeil, Comment on “Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH,” Science. 314 (2006) 595.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Mongillo, O. Barak, M. Tsodyks, Synaptic theory of working memory, Science. 319 (2008) 1543–1546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Matsumoto, M. Hoga, Y. Ohyagi, M. Ishikawa, M. Naruse, K. Hanaki, R. Suzuki, D. Sekiguchi, N. Tate, M. Ohtsu, Nano-artifact metrics based on random collapse of resist, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6142.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.K. Baker, G.S. Martin, Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
D. Kapoor, ed., Critical Perspectives on Neoliberal Globalization, Development and Education in Africa and Asia, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Nakayama, Novel functions of adhesins encoded by gingipain genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis, in: M. Watanabe, O. Okuno, K. Sasaki, N. Takahashi, O. Suzuki, H. Takada (Eds.), Interface Oral Health Science 2007: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium for Interface Oral Health Science, Held in Sendai, Japan, Between 18 and 19 February, 2007, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2007: pp. 53–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Materials and Technologies.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Galloping Crocodiles Ate Dinosaurs In North Africa, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1966.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.J. Sherman, Bridging the attachment transmission gap with maternal mind-mindedness and infant temperament, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Nassau Has $100 Million for Open Space, New York Times. (2007) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Materials and Technologies
AbbreviationSustain. Mater. Technol.
ISSN (print)2214-9937

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