How to format your references using the Sustainable Materials and Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Materials and Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Goldston, In which we say goodbye, Nature. 462 (2009) 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Akiyama, M.C. Gibson, Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing, Nature. 527 (2015) 375–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.-Q. Guo, M. Okamoto, N.M. Crawford, Identification of a plant nitric oxide synthase gene involved in hormonal signaling, Science. 302 (2003) 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Wu, X. Zhang, H. Pan, W. Deng, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Jie, In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Crook, P.A. Kemp, Transforming Private Landlords, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
N.T. Nguyen, R. Kowalczyk, C. Orłowski, A. Ziółkowski, eds., Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XXV, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Chen, Y. Liu, D. Tu, Surface Modification Chemistry of Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles, in: Y. Liu, D. Tu (Eds.), Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanomaterials: From Fundamentals to Bioapplications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Materials and Technologies.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch A Cheetah Robot Jump Over Hurdles Without Slowing Down, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Prescribing: CMS Should Address Inconsistencies in Its Two Incentive Programs That Encourage the Use of Health Information Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Butts, Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Valentin Rasputin, ‘Village Prose’ Leader, Dies at 77, New York Times. (2015) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Materials and Technologies
AbbreviationSustain. Mater. Technol.
ISSN (print)2214-9937

Other styles