How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Oettl, “Sociology: Honour the helpful,” Nature, vol. 489, no. 7417, pp. 496–497, Sep. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. G. Richmond and D. S. Strait, “Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6776, pp. 382–385, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. E. Irwin, S. Bensch, and T. D. Price, “Speciation in a ring,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6818, pp. 333–337, Jan. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-color single-photon photoinitiation and photoinhibition for subdiffraction photolithography,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5929, pp. 913–917, May 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Schwartz, Rethinking Pragmatism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
A. Obi, Ed., Institutional constraints to small farmer development in Southern Africa. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Bog, K. Sachs, A. Zeier, and H. Plattner, “Normalization in a Mixed OLTP and OLAP Workload Scenario,” in Topics in Performance Evaluation, Measurement and Characterization: Third TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2011, Seattle, WA, USA, August 29-September 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, R. Nambiar and M. Poess, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “The Lost Ocean Of Mars,” IFLScience, Mar. 16, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-14-328T, Feb. 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Haghighat, “An optimization model to allocate budget in school rehabilitation projects,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. B. Stewart, “The Post’s Latest Bombshell: It’s Thriving in Digital News,” New York Times, p. B1, May 19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. On Broadcast.
ISSN (print)0018-9316
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

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